Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


The Silk Road, or Silk Route, is a network of trade and cultural transmission routes that were central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the West and East by merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads, and urban dwellers from China and India to the Mediterranean Sea during various periods of time.


the system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught byConfucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestorworship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and con


the philosophical system evolved by Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu,advocating a life of complete simplicity and naturalness and ofnoninterference with the course of natural events, in order to attain ahappy existence in harmony with the Tao.

Ming Dynasty

A major dynasty that ruled China from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. It was marked by a great expansion of Chinesecommerce into East Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia.

Mandate of Heaven

a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given theright to rule from a divine source

Great Wall of China

a system of fortified walls with a roadway along the top, constructedas a defense for China against the nomads of the regions that arenow Mongolia and Manchuria: completed in the 3rd century b.c., butlater repeatedly modified and rebuilt. 2000 miles (3220 km) long.

Plague/Black Death

a form of bubonic plague that spread over Europe in the 14th centuryand killed an estimated quarter of the population.


the activity, spirit, or time of the great revival of art, literature, andlearning in Europe beginning in the 14th century and extending to the17th century, marking the transition from the medieval to the modernworld.2.the forms and treatments in art used during this period.3.(sometimes lowercase) any similar revival in the world of art andlearning.4.(lowercase) a renewal of life, vigor, interest, etc.; rebirth; revival:a moral renaissance.


any system or mode of thought or action in which human interests,values, and dignity predominate.2.devotion to or study of the humanities.3.(sometimes initial capital letter) the studies, principles, or culture ofthe humanists.4.Philosophy. a variety of ethical theory and practice that emphasizesreason, scientific inquiry, and human fulfillment in the natural worldand often rejects the importance of belief in God.


Italian statesman, political philosopher, and author.

Leonardo Da Vinci

Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer,mathematician, and scientist.


any Western Christian who is not an adherent of a Catholic, Anglican,or Eastern adherent of any of those Christian bodies that separated from theChurch of Rome during the Reformation, or of any group descendedfrom them.3.(originally) any of the German princes who protested against thedecision of the Diet of Speyer in 1529, which had denounced theReformation.4.(lowercase) a person who protests.

Martin Luther

1483–1546,German theologian and author: leader, in Germany, of the ProtestantReformation.


the act or practice of indulging; gratification of desire.2.the state of being indulgent.3.indulgent allowance or tolerance.4.a catering to someone's mood or whim; humoring:The sick man demanded indulgence as his due.5.something indulged in:Her favorite indulgence was candy.6.Roman Catholic Church. a partial remission of the temporalpunishment, especially purgatorial atonement, that is still due for asin or sins after absolution.Compare plenary indulgence.7.English and Scottish History. (in the reigns of Charles II and James II)a grant by the king to Protestant dissenters and Roman Catholicsfreeing them from certain penalties imposed, by legislation, becauseof their religion.

Christopher Columbus

Christopher (Sp. Cristóbal Colón ; It. Cristoforo Colombo) 1446?–1506, Italian navigator in Spanish service: traditionally consideredthe discoverer of America 1492.

Hernan Cortes

Hernan Cortes (also Hernando Cortez) was a Spanish explorer who took Mexico from the Aztecs in 1521. He first sailed from Spain in 1504 on a voyage to Santo Domingo, where he lived until joining Diego Velazquez in conquering Cuba in 1511. Cortes led a for... More »Born: Medellin, Spain

Columbian Exchange

The Columbian Exchange was a dramatically widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture (including slaves), communicable diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres. Christopher Columbus' first voyage to the Americas in 1492 launched the era of large-scale contact between the Old and the New Worlds that resulted in this ecological revolution, hence the name "Columbian" Exchange.


practices or spirit; commercialism.


a member of a Nahuatl-speaking state in central Mexico that wasconquered by Cortés in 1521.2.Also called classical Nahuatl. the variety of Nahuatl that served asthe medium of Aztec civilization, aboriginally written in a chieflypictographic script.Compare Nahuatl (def 2).3.the Nahuatl language.

Encomienda System

The encomienda system in Spanish America differed from the Peninsular institution in that encomenderos did not own the land on which the natives lived.

Scientific Method

a method of research in which a problem is identified, relevant dataare gathered, a hypothesis is formulated from these data, and thehypothesis is empirically tested.

Galileo Galilei

Italian physicist and astronomer.2.Aerospace. a U.S. space probe designed to take photographs andobtain other scientific information while orbiting the planet Jupiter.

John Locke

English philosopher.

Age of Enlightenment

an intellectual and scientific movement of 18th century Europe which wascharacterized by a rational and scientific approach to religious, social,political, and economic issues

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Mostly self-educated in Switzerland, Jean-Jacques Rousseau ended up in Paris, France in the 1740s and became acquainted with Voltaire and Denis Diderot. Rousseau published Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality in 1754, arguing that the na... More »Born: June 28, 1712, Geneva, SwitzerlandDied: July 2, 1778See Also: Literary Criticism · WikipediaSearch For: Thomas Jefferson


French philosopher, historian,satirist, dramatist, and essayist.


1689–1755, French philosophical writer.


Nicolaus [nik-uh-ley-uh s] (Show IPA), (Mikolaj Kopernik) 1473–1543, Polish astronomer who promulgated the now accepted theorythat the earth and the other planets move around the sun (theCopernican System)2.a crater in the second quadrant of the face of the moon, having anextensive ray system: about 56 miles (90 km) in diameter from crestto crest with walls rising about 12,000 feet (3650 meters) from itsfloor; having several central mountains the highest being about 2400feet (730 meters).


the standard unit of force in the International System of Units (SI),equal to the force that produces an acceleration of one meter persecond per second on a mass of one kilogram.