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87 Cards in this Set

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Jefferson-Burr tie and the Twelfth Amendment
Without the main Federalist support, Adams lost, but Jefferson and Burr tied with 73 electoral votes each. The tie-breaking vote was decided by the House of Representatives, which eventually elected Jefferson as president
Quasi-War with France
An undeclared franco-american naval conflict in the caribean from 1798-1800
Handsome Lake
Seneca Iroquois prophet
Led people in resourceful efforts to resolve alcohol problems among indians
Treaty of San Lorenzo (Pinckney's Treaty) Washington's farewell address
Washington received the Treaty of San Lorenzo, concluded with Spain by Thomas Pinckney the previous October.

By the terms of this document the Spanish government granted U.S. citizens unrestricted use of the Mississippi River “in its whole breadth, from the source to the ocean,” with a privilege of tax-free export of goods through the port of New Orleans.

Although Washington did not announce it publicly until September 1796, he was determined that under no conditions would he allow his name to be put forward for a third term. He had guided his country for eight years, averted the danger of a ruinous war, opened the economic gateways of the West, and established precedents that would prove true bulwarks of the Constitution. It was time for the transfer of power, by constitutional means, to other hands.

Washington embodied the reasons for his decision not to run again, together with much thoughtful advice to his fellow citizens, in his famous Farewell Address. Parts of the address were written by Hamilton and Madison, and there is no doubt that both were of great help to the president in preparing it. But in its final form it represents the thoughts and character of George Washington
Fugitive Slave Law, I793
Fugitive Slave Laws, acts passed by the United States Congress in 1793 and 1850, intended to facilitate the recapture and extradition of runaway slaves and to commit the federal government to the legitimacy of holding property in slaves. Both laws ultimately provoked dissatisfaction and rancor throughout the country. Northerners questioned the laws' infringements on civil liberty and deplored the national character they lent to the South's institution. Southerners complained that the laws were circumvented both because of legal deficiencies (especially the law of 1793) and growing popular hostility to enforcement. The controversy grew with the Republic itself
Hamilton's Report on the Public credit, 1790
Evaluated revolutionary debt
Attempt to restore the nation’s creditworthiness
Recommended “funding” national debt through securities and bonds
Recommended paying off debts remaining from the revolution
Encouraged sale of federal lands to pay off debt
Rewarded rich profiteers while ignoring the sacrifices of ordinary citizens
Judiciary Act of 1789
Beginning with the Judiciary Act of 1789, Congress created several types of courts and other judicial organizations, which now include lower courts, specialized courts, and administrative offices to help run the judicial system
XYZ Affair
U.S. diplomatic incident involving a commission sent to France in 1797 to negotiate outstanding differences between the two countries. These differences arose largely out of the refusal by the United States to come to the aid of France, then at war with Great Britain, as stipulated in the Franco-American treaty of 1778
Saint Domingue (Haiti) slave uprising Gabriel Prosser and Gabriel's Rebellion, 1800
American leader of an aborted slave uprising, whose intention was to create a free black state in Virginia
Hamiliton's Report on a National Bank
Proposed national bank
Would regulate state banks
Bill of Rights
first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States. The Bill of Rights establishes basic American civil liberties that the government cannot violate. The states ratified the Bill of Rights in 1791, three years after the Constitution was ratified. Originally the Bill of Rights applied only to the federal government, but in a series of 20th-century cases, the Supreme Court decided that most of its provisions apply to the states. Many countries have used the Bill of Rights as a model for defining civil liberties in their constitutions
Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798
Four laws passed in 1798.

The Naturalization Act, raising from 5 to 14 the number of years of United States residence required for naturalization, was repealed in 1802.

The Alien Act, empowering the president to arrest and deport any alien considered dangerous, expired in 1800.

The Alien Enemies Act, which expired in 1801, provided for the arrest and deportation of subjects of foreign powers at war with the United States.

The Sedition Act made it a criminal offense to print or publish false, malicious, or scandalous statements directed against the U.S. government, the president, or Congress; to foster opposition to the lawful acts of Congress; or to aid a foreign power in plotting against the United States
James Madison
Author of the constitution
Hamilton's Report on Manufactures
Advocated protective tariffs on foreign imports to foster deomstic manufacturing
Virginia and Kentucky resolutions, 1798 interposition and nuliification
resolutions adopted in 1798 by the legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia to protest the enactment by the federal government of the Alien and Sedition Acts.

The Kentucky Resolutions, drafted by then Vice President Thomas Jefferson, argued that the government was formed by a compact among the states and that the federal powers were limited to those delegated to it in the Constitution. In addition, the validity of laws passed by the government under supposedly unauthorized powers should be determined by the members of the compact, the states. Another resolution, passed by the Kentucky legislature in 1799, called for a formal nullification by the states of any law deemed objectionable.

The Virginia Resolutions were drawn up by James Madison, later the fourth U.S. president. They also said that states had the right to interfere with any alleged unconstitutional exercise of power by the federal government. Madison wrote, “that, in a case of a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of other powers not granted by the said compact, the states, who are parties thereto, have the right and are in duty bound to interpose for arresting the progress of the evil.”

The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, when presented for approval to the legislatures of the other states, were largely ignored or rejected. The principles stated in the resolutions later were used—out of context, according to Madison—on behalf of nullification and secession
Eli Whitney and the cotton gin
machine used to separate the fibers of cotton from the seeds. The American inventor Eli Whitney is generally credited with inventing the cotton gin in 1793.
The cotton gin allowed the seeds to be removed mechanically and rapidly from the cotton fibers, making cotton production economical and leading to dramatic growth in the United States cotton industry. This expansion contributed to an increase of slave labor in the United States
strict versus loose interpretation and the "necessary and proper" clause of the Constitution
Jefferson favored a STRICT interpretation which opposed extending government authority beyond the letter of the constitution (i.e. a “literal” interpretation of the document)
Hamilton’s loose interpretation was that the only unconstitutional activities were those actually FORBIDDEN to the national government
LOOSE INTERPRETATION is important for an active assertive national government
Whiskey Rebellion
First serious crisis of the young republic
SERIES of disturbances in 1794 aimed against the enforcement of a U.S. federal law of 1791 imposing an excise tax on whiskey. The burden of the tax, which had been sponsored by the Federalist leader and secretary of the treasury Alexander Hamilton, fell largely on western Pennsylvania, then one of the chief whiskey-producing regions of the country. The grain farmers, most of whom were also distillers, depended on whiskey for almost all their income, and they considered the law an attack on their liberty and economic well-being.
SERVED as a milestone in determing limits on public opposition to federal policies
citizen Edmond Genet
French diplomat, appointed minister to the United States during George Washington's presidency, born in Versailles.

Began a campaign to involve the United States in the French Revolution
Jay's Treaty
treaty negotiated in 1794 to resolve the outstanding differences between the United States and Great Britain. The treaty was drafted by the American statesman and jurist John Jay and the British foreign secretary Baron William Grenville. The agreement was intended both to settle long-standing differences between the U.S. and Great Britain and to secure American neutrality during the time of the French Revolution in Europe
election of 1800
The presidential election of 1800—in which Thomas Jefferson defeated the incumbent president, John Adams—was quite bitter. Jefferson’s supporters asserted that Adams intended to crown himself king. Adams’s backers sharply criticized Jefferson for supporting France, especially during the French Revolution (1789-1799), and claimed that Jefferson would set up a guillotine on Capitol Hill to execute his opponents. Although the election was held in November 1800, under the law of the time Jefferson—and the newly elected Congress that his party would dominate—did not take office until March 4, 1801. In his final days as president, Adams attempted to fill the courts with members of his party, the Federalist Party
Federalists versus Republicans
Federalists = those attracted to Hamilton’s policies and associating with the idea of the Federal Constitution – FAVORED A CENTRALIZED NATIONAL GOVERNMENT
Republicans = challenged the federalists concept of government
Shoshone Native American woman, who served as an interpreter and guide for the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1805 and 1806
Aaron Burr conspiracy
a plot to have intended either to separate the Louisiana Territory from the United States or to seize Mexico from Spain
policy of forced recruitment of sailors by the British Royal Navy during the late 18th and early 19th century
Adams-Onis, or Trascontinental, Treaty
agreement defining the western boundary of the United States and providing for the cession of the Floridas to the United States by Spain
John C. Calhoun
Calhoun, John Caldwell (1782-1850), seventh vice president of the United States (1825-32)
Monroe Doctrine
statement of United States policy on the activities and rights of European powers in the western hemisphere
Tripolitan (Barbary) Pirates
After the American Revolution the Barbary pirates began to molest the shipping of the U.S. Following the example of European nations, the U.S. at first concluded treaties with the states of Morocco, Algiers, Tripoli, and Tunis, providing for immunity from attack by money payments
William Henry Harrison and the Battles of Tippecanoe and the Thames
Tippecanoe, Battle of, engagement that helped the United States win control of the Northwest Territory, and established the reputation of William Henry Harrison
Hartford Convention
political assembly representing the Federalist Party of the New England states, called to voice the opposition of the New England Federalists to the War of 1812 between the United States and Britain
McCulloch v. Maryland
established the principle that the Constitution granted certain implied powers to Congress—in this case, the power to create a U.S. bank. The importance of this decision was in its affirmation of a broad interpretation of the Constitution, thus making it a flexible instrument to support the federal government
John Jacob Astor
organized the American Fur Company in 1808 and the Pacific Fur Company in 1810 to combat the British fur-trading monopoly in Canada
Black Hawk War
The Black Hawk War of 1832 and the Seminole War that was renewed in 1835 represented the last efforts of the eastern Native Americans to retain their ancestral lands
Erie Canal
artificial inland waterway that extends from Lake Erie, at Buffalo, New York, to the Hudson River, near Albany, New York. The Erie Canal forms a branch of the New York State Canal System, a network of canals established in 1903
Atexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America
French political writer and statesman, whose work on the United States political system became a classic
"Tariff of Abominations," 1828
placed high import taxes on both manufactured goods and raw materials
Nicholas Biddle and the Bank of the United States
American diplomat and financier, born in Philadelphia. In 1819 President James Monroe appointed him one of the directors of the Second Bank of the United States. He became president of the bank in 1822 and embarked on a successful program to stabilize the currency
Horace Mann
American educator, born in Franklin, Massachusetts, and educated at Brown University and the Litchfield (Connecticut) Law School
John Humphrey Noyes and Oneida
American social reformer, founder of the Oneida Community
midnight judges
One of Adams's last official acts was to fill a large number of lifetime judgeships with Federalist judges. These were the so-called “midnight judges,” whose appointments angered Jefferson's party because Adams named them after the election
Oliver H, Perry and the Battle of Lake Erie
American naval commander
Era of Good Feelings
there were few political battles and his Democratic-Republican Party ruled almost unopposed
Missouri Compromise
legislative measures enacted by the United States Congress in 1820 that regulated the extension of slavery in the United States for three decades
Five Civilized Tribes
group of Southeastern Native American tribes named for the similarity of their systems of government and economy to those of the United States and European nations
Robert Fulton, the Clermont, and the Livingston-Fulton monopoly
designed the first efficient steamboat, the Clermont
Samuel Slater
American cotton producer, recognized as founder of the cotton industry in the United States and as a pioneer of the factory system
doctrine of separate spheres Andrew Jackson Downing
Landscape architect and writer
John C. Calhoun and the South Carolina Exposition and Protest
asserted the right of the states to nullify federal laws
Second Great Awakening
Second, a wave of evangelical revivalism called the Second Great Awakening inspired a reform spirit in the North. The revivalists argued that America was in need of moral regeneration by dedicated Christians
Sojourner Truth
American abolitionist and advocate of women’s rights
Nat Turner’s rebellion
American slave, leader of a black slave revolt. Born on a plantation in Southampton County, Virginia, Turner was a popular religious leader among his fellow slaves and became convinced that he had been chosen by God to lead his people to freedom. On August 22, 1831, he and seven other slaves killed their master and his family and, joined by about 60 blacks from neighboring plantations, started a general revolt
Indian Removal Act, 1830
resulted in the uprooting of entire tribes from their homelands and their forced resettlement beyond the Mississippi
Marbury vs. Madison
landmark court case of 1803 in which the Supreme Court of the United States established its authority to review and invalidate government actions that conflict with the Constitution of the United States
Treaty of Ghent and the slatus quo ante
signed by the United States and Britain in Ghent (Gent), Belgium, on December 24, 1814, concluding the War of 1812 between the two powers
Lewis and Clark Expedition
first United States overland exploration of the American West and Pacific Northwest, beginning in May 1804 and ending in September 1806

The principal goal of the expedition was to locate a Northwest Passage, or some kind of water connection between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and
survey its potential as a waterway for American westward expansion. Lewsi and Clark did not find this route
Battle of New Orleans
New Orleans, Battle of, name of two battles fought near New Orleans, Louisiana, one battle in the War of 1812 and the other in the American Civil War
The Battle of New Orleans of the War of 1812 was fought on January 8, 1815, between about 6500 American troops, mostly irregulars, under the command of the American general Andrew Jackson and a British force of about 8700
Rush-Bagot Treaty mad British-American Convention, 1818
1817 treaty under which Britain and the United States reduced, equalized, and eventually eliminated their naval forces on the Great Lakes
Trial of Tears
forced exodus of Cherokee in 1838 and 1839 from their southeastern homeland to the Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma
Panic of 1819
an economic downturn, introduced Americans to a cycle of booming economy followed by bust, a cycle that would come to characterize the new market economy during the 19th century
Gibbins v Ogden
court case of 1824 in which the Supreme Court of the United States interpreted the authority of Congress to regulate commerce and rejected the validity of a state law granting a monopoly to a company engaged in interstate commerce
Henry Clay and the American System spoils system
secretary of state under John Quincy Adams and an unsuccessful candidate for the presidency in 1824, 1832, and 1844. The Great Pacificator
Compromise of 1833
introduced by the statesman Henry Clay. He advanced the so-called home-market argument, which was designed to reconcile the interests of the agricultural South and West with those of the manufacturing North. The argument rested on the proposition that the prosperity of the American farmer depends on a regular and constant market for products and that such a market is to be obtained only by building up manufacturing centers within the country
Lyman Beecher and the American Temperance Society
American Presbyterian clergyman, born in New Haven, Connecticut, and educated at Yale College
Falls convention, and the Declaration of Sentiments
The first women’s rights convention met at a Wesleyan church chapel in Seneca Falls, New York. The convention then adopted a Declaration of Sentiments patterned after the American Declaration of Independence
8 - Marbury vs. Madison
Idea of judicial review
Tecumseh and the Prophet
indian brothers who sought to unite several tribes in ohio and indiana agains settlers
John Marshall
Secretary of State
Jefferson appoints as chief justice of supreme court
Napoleon's continental system
basically cut off trade with Britain. Most of Europe disliked the system because they needed goods from Britain
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
The British naval frigate HMS Leopard follows the American naval frigate USS Chesapeake out of Norfolk harbor in Virginia, and opens fire upon it after a request to board is denied.

British naval officers board, seize four men who had deserted the royal navy, hang them from a yardarm, and sail away.
The Embargo Act
In response to the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair, forbids ships to leave from American ports for trade with foreign ports
8 - Non-intercourse act
opened trade with britain and france
8 - war hawks
election of 1810
led by henry clay of kentucky
preferred war to peace
8 - henry clay
leader of the war hawks
10 - pet banks
state banks
10 - Log Cabin campaign, "Tippecanoe and Tyler too," and the election of 1840
Whig “hurrah” campaign of 1840
Whig 1840 slogan
Harrison wins election over Van Buren and depression
10 - Burned-Over District
Area of western New York
10 - Charles G. Finney and "perfectionism" William E/lery Channing and Unitarianism Joseph
Smith, Brigham Young, and Mormonism
Religious during the Second Great Awakening
Perfectionism – idea that people could live without sin
William Ellery – Unitarian leader
Unitarianism – the perfection of human nature, the elevation of men into nobler beings
Joseph Smith – started Mormonism
Brigham Young – Mormon leader
10 - William Lloyd Garrison, The Liberator, and the American Anti-Slavery Society
slavery abolitionist
10 - James G. Birney and the Liberty party Angelina and Sarah Grimke
Slavery abolitionists
12 - J.D.B. De Bow
Southerner who advocated factories as a way to revive the economies of older states
12 - Hinton R. Helper, The Impending Crisis of the South
Called upon nonslaveholders to abolish slavery in their own interest
12 - proslavery argument
argument that slavery was a positive good rather than a necessary evil. Argued that slave societies had produced plato and Aristotle and that roman had laid the basis of western civilization
12 - George Fitzhugh
Made the argument that factory workers were wage slaves
12 - southern code of honor
honor based on the evaluation of others
12 - Josiah Henson
Helped other slaves escape south
12 - Henry "Box" Brown
Slave that escaped by being shipped in a box