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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-Extreme Nationalism
-antisocialism aimed at destroying the working class movements
-dynamic and violent leader
-glorification of war and the military
-It only took hold in Italy and Germany before 1950 and it helped the development of World War II because of the rulers; Mussolini and Hitler
-Fascist leader of Italy
-Before that, he was expelled from the Italian Socialist party because of Nationalism
-Came back from exile and was elected to Parliament of the Fascist party and eventually turned his power into a dictatorship
-Joined Hitler and formed an alliance in 1959 after the German attack on Ethiopia
-Allowed Hitler to annex Austria for Munick Pact (1939)
-Lost political popularity after Spanish and Ethiopian wars and thus did no join WWII until France entered in 1940
Nazi Seizure of Power, 1933-34
-In 1933, the Nazi party won 44% of the vote for power which was the highest of all
-Hitler then outlawed the Communist party and arrested Parliamentary members
-Then Hitler made the Enabling Act which gave him complete dictatorial power for four years
-The Nazi's moved to control all independent organizations (divide and conquer technique)
Paul Von Hindenburg
-German general who defeated Russia in the Battles of Tannenberg and Masurian Lakes in 1914
German Invasion of Belgium in August 1914
-Took place during Germany's trecherous expansion
-Germans invaded Belgium thinking it would be very short and easy
-However, Belgium stood their ground and also had the help of the British and French
-France and Britain took over by outnumbering the Germans in man power and Paris and France were miraculously saved from Germany
Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact of August 1939
-Offered by Hitler to Stalin
-Lasted for 10 years
-Each dictator promised to remain neutral if the other became involved in war
Stalinist Terror and Purges
-The Communist party in Russia used TERROR as their state policy
-There was horrible famine and disgusting treatment of the Russian people
-There was a secret police force that kept order and made examples of wrong-doers by putting them to death
-At the same time, Stalin had heard of people in his governmental bodies attempting to assassinate him so he killed most of his officials and hired new ones that would be more loyal to him
Treaty of Versailles
-Between the Allies and Germany at the end of WWI
-Reestablished international order by creating unfair rules for Germany
-Some of Germany's land was taken away, they had to limit their army to 100,000 men, and agree to stay out of the Rhineland
-Declared that Germany was responsible for the war and had to pay for the reparations
Five Year Plans
-Took place in the Soviet Union after Stalin came to power
-First one was the "Revolution From Above" and wanted to generate new loyalties of the Soviet people
-Was a ruling of the socialists and increased the industrial output by 250%, agriculture by 150%, and land of smaller farmers was consolidated into collective plots
Joseph Stalin
-Followed Lenin in the Soviet power
-Consolidated the Russia that was left by Lenin and made great developments for it through the Socialist party
-The "better-off" peasants during the time of Stalin's rule in the Soviet Union
-Stalin stripped them off their land and tried to liquidate them from the economy
-Many starved and were sent to forced-labor camps to be re-educated
-Secret police who hunted down and executed thousands of real or supposed foes of the communist regime such as the tsar and his family
-They set an example for the rest of the Soviet Union as to what they should not do so that terror was instated in the society
-A revolutionary and racial Marxist who executed the Bolshevik seizure of power
-Formed a special military-revolutionary committee and made himself the leader of it
-Had Russia's economy turn over to the Soviets with Lenin in charge
-Follower of Marxian Socialism
-Exiled to Siberia for 3 years because of a socialist revolt
-Was part of the Bolsheviks or "majority group" of Socialists but then rejected them to take full power with the Soviets
Bolshevik Revolution
-Bolsheviks were run by Lenin and had a great appeal to the working class in Russia
-Lenin led a coup with the idea of "All power to the Soviets", "All land to the peasants", and "Stop the war now" but it failed and forced Lenin into hiding
-Lenin's group of Marxian Socialists
-Was the majority of Socialists but then decreased in number
-Led a coup against the Russian government that failed in 1918
Petrograd Soviet
-A council of workers and soldiers' deputies who shared power with the Russian provisional government
-Weakened the provisional govt by coming up with radical orders; the most famous being the Army Order No. 1 which stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers
Nicholas II
-Tsar of Russia who united his country during wartime with the Germans
-He saw Russia's greatness in his continual rule but he never made good relationships with his people
-He called for a completely new government and left to tell the troops
-While he was gone, his wife ruled and drama struck hard leading to famine in the land and the loss of his throne
Walter Ratheneu
-Talented, foresighted Jewish industrialist in charge of Germany's largest electric company
-He convinced the govt to set up the War Raw Materials Board to ration and distribute raw materials
-Synthetic rubber was created during this time as a substitute
Social Democratic Party (Germany)
-Created by Marx
-Outlawed by Bismarck and was driven underground
-Followers were very organized and disciplined
-It then began to regrow and became reinstated by the new emperor William II
-Social Democrats were elected to the Reichstag in the 1890's and continued in power with Lenin and Stalin and focused on gradual social and political reform
Jean Jaures
-Great Socialist leader in France
-He created a unified Socialist party but also stayed an optimistic secular humanist
Otto Von Bismarck
-Master of politics
-Was a Prussian diplomat and became chief minister in 1862
-Believed in "might makes right"
-He ruled during the Austro-Prussian war or 1866 which they won and the Franco-Prussian War of 1871
-He created a Constitution for the new North German Confederation and he was made chancellor
-He controlled the army and foreign affairs
Austro-Prussian War
-1866 - only lasted 7 weeks
-An attempt to get Austria out of the business of the German Confederation
-Austria was defeated and lost no land but agreed to get out of German affairs
Franco-Prussian War
-Bismarck wanted this war to get the southern German states under his power and make a unified Germany
-Appeared to be about the future king of Spain being Napolean III or Prussia's William I
-France surrendered after 5 months and the south German states were under Bismarck's control
-The war gave a big surge of patriotism in Germany and made Germany the most powerful state in Europe
-A superpatriot of Italy and a revolutionary
-Led a corps of volunteers against Austria in 1985 and emerged in 1860 as an Italian politician
-Was used by Cavour for his idea to liberate the 2 Sicilies
-During his guerilla war for this cause he faught with his red shirts and captured Palermo
-He unified the northern and southern Italy and Italy became a Parliamentary Monarchy
-Brilliant statesman and leader of Sardinia, Italy
-He was very well off
-Sent soldiers to the S of Italy but they didnt trust the people there
-N and S were divided because of foreign rule and modernization
-Made a liberal constitutional state and made great changes for the people -> industry
-led Garibaldi to make Italy more conservative and united the country on paper, though the aristocracy and lower classes were still divided
-Faught with Napolean III to oust Austria out of N Italy
Revolution of 1848 in France
-Sparked urban industrial society
-Started because of Nationalism
Alexis de Toqueville
-Author of Democracy in America
-Predicted the overthrow of Louis Phillipe's govt
-He saw socialism as the most characteristic aspect of the Revolution in Paris
Reform Bill of 1832
-Created in Britain
-Made the House of Commons the all-important legislative body
-Gave power to the new industry in the country
-And the govt consolidated by having the old, smaller districts be sold
Henri de Saint-Simon
-One of the most influential Utopian Socialists in France
-Said the key to progress was proper social organization and industry
-He wanted to take the officals out of power and the scientists and industrialists would take over
-He also wanted improved conditions for the poor
Germaine de Stael
-A Franco-Swiss writer living in exile
-She tried to convince France to throw away their classical models
-She wrote On Germany (1810)
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
-English author
-Co-published Lyrical Ballads which tried to abandon Classical conventions
William Wordsworth
-Leader of English romanticism
-He was influenced by Rousseau and the spirit of the French Revolution
-Co-published Lyrical Ballads
Karl Marx
-Co-published the Communist Manifesto which became the bible of Socialism
-He supported the ideas of the middle class and he thought that one day they would take over
-He told the factory workers they were being oppressed and they eventually revolted in the name of socialism
-Radical doctrine after 1815 that began in France
-Supporters of it believed in individualism and a united social structure and they did not see that in the countries of the time
-They thought the govt's had to be reorganized and a new society had to be reestablished with a sense of community
-The thoughts spread with Karl Marx, Saint-Simon, Fourier, and their followers
-A very radical idea after 1815
-Had it's influence in the French Revolution
-Believed that each people had its own genius and its own cultural unity
-This idea led to Socialism very closely after
-Followers of it defended their country and followed it whole heartedly
-They did not believe in traditions and wanted the government to go back to the way it was before 1789
-Principles of liberty and equality
-Realized in the America Revolution and then achieved in the French Revolution
-Demanded representative govt as opposed to autocratic monarchy
-It also inspired freedom of speech, the press, assembly, and arbitrary arrest
Holy Alliance
-Formed by Austria, Prussia, and Russia
-Was a symbol of the repression of liberal and revolutionary movements all over Europe
Congress of Vienna
-A meeting of the Allies Russia, Austria, and Great Britain
-Met to settle a peace settlement
Klemens von Metternich
-Austrian foreign minister
-Gave up territories in Belgium and Southern Germany but expanded greatly elsewhere
-A disease that leads to rotting gums, swelling limbs, and great weakness
-It was most frequent on the ships of the 1700's because of the lack of food and bad dietary habits on the seas
Captain James Cook
-Started as a merchant marine and slowly worked his way up to the royal navy
-Was sent to Newfoundland to survey
-Embodied the enlightenment ideas of knowledge and expedition
-Circumnavigated the globe from 1768-1771
-His crew got scurvy
-He found new peoples in Tahiti and Sydney and he charted all the land he found
Treaty of Paris
-Ratified British victory of the colonies against France
-France lost all its possessions on the mainland of North America and in Canada
-France also gave up most of it's holdings in India
-Opened Britain up as the leader in landowning and power
-A customs union of the separate German states
-Thought of by Friedrich List
-Came into being in 1834 allowing goods to move between the German member states without tariffs while creating a single uniform tariff for other nations
Great Exposition/Crystal Palace (London)
-A great industrial fair in England in which a beautiful glass and iron building (Crystal Palace) was constructed and many millions visited
-England produced 2/3 of the world's coal and more than 1/2 of its iron and cotton cloth
James Watt
-Studied the steam engine
-He reduced the waste of energy of Newcomen's steam engine and invented his own in 1769
-He created the Industrial Revolution's most fundamental advance in technology