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84 Cards in this Set

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Belief that the natural world was suffused with spiritual power


practice of bestowing all land to eldest son forcing under sons to be poor

Civic Humanism

belief that people owed service to their community and government, said to be crucial in a republic


doctrines inconsistent with the teachings of the church


West African secret society for men/women that unified different clans and languages

Chattel slavery

ownership of human beings as property

Columbian Exchange

intercontinental movement of plants, animals, and diseases


grants from the crown that allowed conquistadors to claim labor and goods from native communities

Mita system

made labors available to the Inca empire which forced Indians to work in the gold and silver mines, enforced by the Spanish


economic theory that trade increased wealth and should be supported by the government

Society of friends

Quaker religious group

Navigation Act of 1651

prohibited colonies from trading with nations besides England

Middle Passage

journey of Africans slaves from Africa to America


group of families with a shared ancestor


multi room stone building built in southwestern US


farm worker in Europe, often leased lands from landlords


social identity and property was passed through female line


England 1500-1800, farmer who owned enough land to support a family


person who pays homage to spiritual forces in the natural world


state with representative system of government


organization of skilled workers in medieval and early Europe that regulated a craft


Spanish catholic attempt to rid Muslim Arabs from Spanish lands, succeeded after a century


John Calvin was main proponent, fundamental to Puritan theology, idea people are chosen for salvation before birth


grant from catholic church that pardoned sinners from afterlife punishment, condemned by Martin Luther in 1517


merchants would buy wool, hire workers to weave it, but they would sell it and profit


English who owned land but weren't noble, their status rose during the Price Revolution

Price Revolution

high inflation in Europe in 1500, reduced political power of aristocracy and left peasants in poverty, started emigration to Europe

Enclosure Acts

16th century English law that allowed lands to be fenced for grazing, left peasants without land so they had to work as wage laborers

Hernando de Soto

Spanish, went to present day SCin 1540, interacted with natives

Duarte Lopez

Portuguese explorer who visited African kingdom of Kongo in 1578


NA tribe that dominated Chesapeake Bay before the settlers


1500, 5 nations stopped fighting and banded together in Eastern Woodlands, matriarchal, chief was Sachem

Prince Henry of Portugal

built new boat that allowed for further travel and discovery, cash crops and trade, slavery

Ferdinand II and Isabella I

Spanish monarchs who began the reconquista, subsidized Columbus' voyage

Juan Ponce de Leon

explored Florida

Vasco Nunez de Balboa

crossed Panama and became first European to see pacific ocean

Hernan Cortez

(1485-1547) Spaniard who challenged Tenochtitlan's ruler, took him and the city captive, toppled Aztec Empire in 1521

Francisco Pizarro

1524 Spaniard who captured Inca emperor and seized the city

Pedro Alvares Cabral

Portuguese commander who discovered Brazil (Island of the True Cross)

Mansa Musa

Muslim emperor of Mali, constructed many mosques and schools, but spent too much

Vasco de Gama

Portuguese explorer who reached East Africa and India


1096-1291 in Europe resulted in intensified Christian identity and persecution of Jews, introduced Europeans to new trade routes and new places

Protestant Reformation

1517 schism from the Roman Catholic Church led by Martin Luther & John Calvin

Mississippi Valley

home of largest development, mounds and maize

Elizabeth Key

1656 won her right to freedom because her dad and husband were free white men even though her mother was a slave

Virginia statute of 1662

declared one's status was defined by their mother's

Spanish colonies

In mesoamerica and the andes, set up municipal councils, a legal code, and the Catholic Church, began Columbian Exchange

Gold and Silver Mines

traded with China, used mita system, triggered inflation

King Philip II

(1556-1598) Spanish, became most powerful because of their newfound wealth, spent a lot of religious wars

King Henry VIII

(1509-1547) placed himself at the head of the Church of England when the pope refused to annul his marriage, still maintained Catholic doctrines and practices

Queen Elizabeth I

(1558-1603) approved Protestant confession, maintained Catholic practices which angered Protestants

Francis Drake

seafarer was took action to prevent Spanish control of American wealth, disrupted Spanish shipping, was first English to circumnavigate

Portugal colony

in Brazil, sugar mills, imported African slaves


1607, founded to look for gold, tobacco became the cash crop, were initially unprepared to sustain a colony, became a royal company after multiple Indian attacks with an elected assembly, legal system, and Anglican church

House of Burgesses

1619 system of representative government set up in Jamestown

Cecilius Calvert

set up Maryland under King Charles to be a refuge for Catholics, tobacco was a cash crop

Toleration Act

1649 allowed Christians to follow their beliefs and hold mass

French Colonies

1530 Jacques Cartier claimed St Lawrence, 1608 Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec, trading posts for fur trade with the Hurons


1609 Henry Hudson establishes Albany as part of the fur trade, 1621 West India Company set up New Amsterdam--- attacked by English and becomes New York 1664


1620 Puritans establish Plymouth, 1630 Protestants establish Mass Bay

John Winthrop

governor of Mass Bay

Roger Williams

1636 banned from Mass Bay for supporting separation of church and state, 1644 created Rhode Island

Anne Hutchinson

1637 banished to Rhode Island

Puritan- Pequot War

1636-1637 fought Mass and Conn, wiped them out and believed God was pleased with them so they set up Indian praying towns

Metacom's War

(1675-1676) Wampanoag leader was unhappy with English in New England, attacked everyday, Mass hired Mohegan and Mohawk to kill him

Bacon's Rebellion

1675 Virginia, Nathaniel Bacon's attacks on the natives to spite governor William Berkeley, stood for removal of natives and end of rule by the wealthy, Bacon died and rebels were punished

Charles II

(1660-1685) expanded English power in Asia and America settled Carolina, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania

William Penn

Pennsylvania, wanted it to be a safe place for Quakers, became most open and democratic of the Restoration colonies

Frame of Government

1681 Penn applied Quaker's radical beliefs to politics, ensured religious freedom, political equality, voting rights to any property owning male

James II

(1685-1688) created Dominion of New England for better control, was overthrown in the Glorious Revolution by William and Mary

Dominion of New England

merge of Conn, Rhode Island, Mass Bay, and Plymouth, and later New York and New Jersey, banned existing legislative assemblies, invalidated land titles, angered colonies and England

Sir Edmund Andros

appointed governor of Dominion by James II, carried out the oppressive orders

Two Treaties of Government

1690 John Locke rejection of the divine rights monarchy, government comes from the consent of the governed, individuals have the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness

Jacob Leisler

New York, led rebellion against the Dominion of New England, was hung for treason after the Glorious Revolution because he alienated himself from well off Dutch in New York

Covenant Chain

Iroquois alliance with New York, became model for all British/Native American relations, Iroquois was neutral with all so everyone wanted to trade with them

War of Spanish Succession

(1702-1713) Britain against France and Spain, burned St Augustine but didn't capture it

South Atlantic System

centered in Brazil/ West Indies, sugar & tobacco & slaves and other tropical products, Europeans profited

Middle Passage

slave journey on boats from Africa to America

Stono Rebellion

1739 largest slave uprising in the colonies, escaped South Carolina to Florida but were stopped by the SC militia, showed uprisings could be easily crushed

William Byrd II

(1674-1744) showed that prominent colonists were not important to England

Sir Robert Walpole

(1702-1742) Whig leader of House of Commons, salutary neglect came out of his political policies, used patronage and bribes--- in response American strengthened representatives assemblies


subsidized to protect SC from the Spanish

War of Jenkins Ear

(1739-1741) aka War of Austrian Succession, Walpole declared war on the Spanish but it became a bigger problem for England, ended with a treaty that made it clear England cared more about themselves than the colonies

Fundamental Constitution of Carolina

(1669) attempted to have a traditional feudal system in Carolina, but it didn't work and became a modest farming family place