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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Explain the functions of the different types of blood vessels.
The ______ is Modified vessel specialized for pumping.
Heart –
the _______ are series of efferent vessels; carries blood to the capillaries
Arteries –
the ________ are a diffuse network of thin tubules that anastomose profusely and
through whose walls the interchange between blood and tissue takes place.
Capillaries –
_________ represent the convergence of capillaries into a system of larger
channels that conveys blood containing products of metabolism(carbon dioxide, etc) to the heart
Veins –
Describe and visualize the different tunics or layers of the components of the
cardiovascular (blood vessels and heart) and lymphatic systems. Identify structures that are located in these layers.
TUNICA INTIMA consists of three layers. 1) ________ which is single layer of squamous cells which rests on a basal lamina and has a
1% turnover rate per day.
2) _______ which is a thin layer of loose C.T. that may contain smooth muscle cells.
3) _________ which is a thin layer of elastin containing fenestrae that
allow substances to diffuse to and nourish cells.
endothelium –
subendothelium –
Internal elastic lamina-
__________ consists of concentric layers of helically arranged smooth muscle cells. Interposed between the layers are elastic laminae, elastic fibers, and type III collagen.
Tunica media –
_________ is Loose C.T. containing type I collagen that becomes continuous with C.T. of the organ through which the vessel runs.
Tunica adventitia –
Describe and recognize the different types of blood vessels.
In large vessels, blood vessels called __________ branch profusely in the t. adventitia and outer portions of the t. media to provide nutrients to the cells of these structures. The inner portions of the t. media
derive their nutrients by diffusion from the lumen.
vasa vasorum
_______ are classified on the basis of size and characteristics of the t. media.
Arteries –
__________ arteries are:
a. >1 cm diameter
b. include the aorta and its large branches.
c. thick subendothelial layer
d. 40-60 layers of smooth muscle cells in the t. media.
Large, Elastic, Conducting
__________ arteries are:
a. 2-10 mm diameter
b. 25-40 layers of smooth muscle cells in the t. media.
c. less elastin in the t. media than elastic arteries.
d. internal and external elastic laminae usually prominent.
Medium, Muscular, Distributing, Named
_______ arteries are:
a. 0.1 - 2 mm
b. 4-24 layers of smooth muscle cells in the t. media.
c. internal elastic lamina may be present
_________ are
a. 10-100 μm
b. 1-3 layers of smooth muscle cells in the t. media.
c. lacks an internal elastic lamina.
d. serve as flow regulators for the capillary beds.
e. PRECAPILLARY SPHINCTERS: slight thickening of smooth muscle at the origins of capillary bed; can reduce or shut off blood to the capillaries.
__________ are
1. 4-10 μm; smallest diameter of the blood vessels
2. ave. total length of all capillaries: 50,000-60,000 miles
3. lined by a single layer of endothelial cells; may be more than 1 endothelial cell
in cross section.
4. fluid containing gases, nutrients, waste products, etc. can pass through the
thin walls via pinocytic vesicles.
__________ capillaries are:
1) endothelial cells interconnected by tight and gap junctions.
2) found esp. in muscle, CNS, skin, exocrine glands.
__________ capillaries are:
1) fenestrae (openings) present in the walls of capillary.
2) encountered in tissues where rapid interchange occurs between the
tissues and blood (e.g. kidney, endocrine glands, and intestine.
__________ capillaries are:
1) Typically found in the spleen, bone marrow, and liver.
2) larger in diameter than the other two.
3) junctions normally not present between endothelial cells; may have
gaps between neighboring cells.
4) many fenestrae present.
Discontinuous (sinusoidal capillaries)
________ are:
a. associated primarily with continuous type capillaries and venules.
b. contain myosin, actin, tropomyosin suggesting a contractile capability.
c. after tissue injury, they proliferate and differentiate to form new vessels
and connective tissue.
____________ veins or venule (10-100 μm) are:
a) 10-50 μm diameter
b) single layer of endothelial cells surrounded by pericytes
____________ veins are:
a) 50-100 μm diameter
b) t. intima present
c) t. media with 1-2 layers of smooth muscle cells
d) thin t. adventitia present
____________ veins have:
1) t. intima present
2) t. media containing smooth muscle cells that increases with diameter
3) t. adventitia present
4) valves present to prevent backflow of blood
Small (0.1-1 mm) to Medium (1-10 mm)
In _______ veins:
1) t. intima contains some smooth muscle cells
2) t. media relatively thin and contains circumferentially arranged smooth
muscle cells
3) boundary between t. intima and t. media indistinct
4) t. adventitia thickest of veins and contains longitudinal bundles of
smooth muscle cells.
Large (>1 cm)
________ are:
a) semilunar folds of the t. intima
b) occur in pairs
c) free margins directed towards the heart
1) cerebral & meningeal vv.
2) dural venous sinuses
3) vv. of retina & bones
lack a ________
t. media
5. Illustrate the organization of the heart and the heart conduction system.
the _________ is a point of attachment for cardiac muscle
and contains opening for conduction system
Cardiac skeleton
The Cardiac skeleton consists of 3 parts
a) _______ (dense C.T.)
b) _______ (dense C.T.)
c) _______
annuli fibrosi
trigona fibrosa
septum membranaceum
the ______ consists of loose C.T. plus a layer of mesothelium
Pericardium –
The _______ consists of loose C.T. containing blood vessels & nerves that supply the heart. It is equivalent to t. adventitia of vessels
The _______ is a single layer endothelial cells
It is a subendothelial layer of C.T. containing elastic and collagen fibers plus
some smooth muscle cells.
The ______ portion of this contains veins, nerves and branches of impulse
conduction system
The entire ________ is equivalent to t. intima of vessels
The __________ consists of anastomosing myocardial cells which are interconnected end-to-end
by intercalated disks and side-to-side by gap junctions
The myocardium has an interstitium filled with loose C.T. called
thickness of myocardium varies: thinnest in the _____ and thickest in the _____.
myocardial cells grouped into three populations:
a) _______(working cells)
b) _______(nodal cells – smaller than working cells)
c) _______ (Purkinje cells-larger than working cells)
contractile cells
impulse-generating cells impulse-conducting cells
Heart _______ are:
1) dense fibrous C.T. lined on both sides by endothelium
2) bases attached to the annuli fibrosa of the cardiac skeleton
________________ is:
1) produced by myocardial cells of the atrium
2) acts on kidney to cause loss of sodium (natriuresis) and water
(diuresis); opposes effects of aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone
e. Atrial Naturetic Factor (cardionatrin, atriopeptin)
Illustrate the hearts conduction system.
in the hearts impulse Conducting System, impulse is initiated in the sinoatrial (S.A.) node by nodal cells located in
the epicardium near the junction of the ________ and _________.
sup. vena cava
right atrium
impulse spreads to nodal cells of the atrioventricular (A.V.) node
located in the ________ of the septal wall of the right atrium.
impulse from the A-V node conducted across the cardiac skeleton by the ____________
A-V bundle (of His)
A-V bundle divides into left and right branches; consists of Purkinje
cells traveling in the ________ layer; impulse passes to the
ventricular cardiac muscle cells (working cells)
____________ originate from the vagus nerve.
a) synapse with postganglionic neurons located near the S-A and the
A-V nodes.
b) functions to slow the heart rate and reduces the force of the
parasympathetic fibers
__________ originate in lat. horns of spinal cord segments T1-T6
a) post-ganglionic fibers terminate at the S-A and AV nodes
b) function to increase heart rate and force of contraction
sympathetic fibers
Describe the organization and function of lymphatic vessels.
blind-end lymphatic capillaries consists of a single layer of __________. The cells of which are loosely connected and often slightly overlap with each other
Capillaries converge into larger lymphatic vessels and finally into the largest
trunks: _______ and ___________. These larger vessels have a structure similar to veins except that they ave thinner walls and there is no clear-cut separations between the intima, media, and
adventitia. Valves are present in the lymphatic vessels (exc. capillaries).
thoracic duct
right lymphatic trunk