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47 Cards in this Set

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metastasize

the ability of cancer cells to spread from where they develop to another part of the body

malignant tumors

masses of cancer cells that invade body tissues and interfere with the normal functioning of tissues and organs

mutations

changes in genes or chromosomes; damaged genes

oncogenes

tumor genes that manufacture altered proteins that speed cell growth and decrease the level of cell differentiations

tumor-suppressor genes

pieces of hereditary material that slow cell growth; anti-oncogenes

carcinogenes

cancer-causing substances

benign

encapsulated masses of abnormal cells that remain in one location and do not invade surrounding tissues

carcinomas

cancer that arise from epithelial tissues

sarcomas

cancers that arise from connective muscle tissues

leukemias

cancers of the blood and related cells

lymphomas

cancers of the lymphatic system

cancer screening

an examination to detect malignancies in a person who has no systems

biopsy

a small piece of tissue that is taken from a growth so that the cells can be studied and a diagnosis confirmed

cancer staging

a description of the extent of the growth and metastasis of a cancer to determine appropriate therapy and prognosis

targeted therapies

drugs or other substances that block the growth and spread of cancer by interfering with specific molecules involved in tumor growth and progression

immunotherapy

manipulation of the body's immune system to rid the body of cancer

passive smoking

the inhalation, by nonsmokers, of tobacco smoke in the air, abestos a fiber-like mineral found in rocks that, when inhaled, can cause lung cancer or other lung conditions

radon gas

a colorless, odorless, radioactive gas present in the rocks and soils in many areas in the US that, when inhaled can cause mutations in cells

colon

the largest intestine

rectum

the lower part of the large intestine

fecal occult

home test that detects hidden blood in the stool

digital rectal exam

a test in which a physician uses a gloved finger to feel the rectum or the prostate for abnormal growths

sigmoidoscopy

a procedure in which a physician views the lower portion of the colon via a flexible fiber-optic tube

colonoscopy

a procedure in which a physician views the entire length of the colon using a flexible fiber-optic tube

lumpectomy

surgical removal of a breast tumor, including a layer of surrounding tissue

total mastectomy

surgical removal of a breast and involved lymph nodes for the treatment of breast cancer

radical mastectomy

surgical removal of a breast, underlying muscle and underarm fat and lymph nodes as a treatment for breast cancer

papanicolaou

screening procedure for cervical cancer in which cells from the cervical canal are removed and then smeared on a glass slide for microscopic examination

basal cell carcinoma

the most common cancer of the skin, which frequently develops on portions of the skin exposed to the sun

squamous cell carcinoma

a common form of skin cancer that develops from exposure to noxious chemicals and high levels of x-rays, as well as from trauma

malignant melanoma

a deadly form of skin cancer that develops most often in persons who has been exposed to the sun in short, intense sessions, have had severe sunburn and extensive sun exposure in childhood, or have had first-degree relatives who had the disease

testicular self-examination

self-screening test that males can perform to detect cancer of the testicles

environmental health

effects of environmental factors on human and effects of humans on their environments

ozone holes

depleted areas of the ozone layer in upper atmosphere

municipal solid waste

nonhazardous refuse generally collected from homes and offices

toxic chemicals

poisonous substances present in the home, workplace or outdoor environments that affect human health

toxicity

poisonous quality

lead poisoning

toxic condition that affects the central nervous system, caused by the ingestion or inhalation of the metallic element lead

carbon monoxide poisoning

a toxic condition that affects red blood cells' ability to carry oxygen, caused by the inhalation of the gas carbon monoxide

pesticides

chemicals that kill plant and animal pests and that can cause poisoning when ingested

sick building syndrome

a variety of vague health-related problems reported by many occupants of large buildings

formaldehyde

a chemical used in the manufacture of certain building materials and furnishings; may cause health problems when released into indoor air

radon gas

substance present in the rocks and soils in many areas in the US; may seep through cracks in basements and cause health problems

hazardous waste

toxic chemical refuse

acid precipitation

rain, snow, or fog combined with sulfur dioxide from fossil fuel emmisions

smog

a haze in the atmosphere formed by various pollutions

Air Quality Index

A guide to air quality that uses levels of various pollutants to determine its values


0 - 50 - good


51- 100 - moderate


101 - 150 - unhealthy for sensitive - orange


151 - 200 - unhealthy - red


200 - 300 - very unhealthy - purple


301 - 500 - hazardous - maroon