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10 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is predestination?
- the total irrelevance of our actions as God has already decided whether we are saved or not
- key philosophers: Augustine of Hippo and John Calvin
- man only has a very limited understanding of God's purposes
what are the strengths and weaknesses of predestination?
S- backs up the traditional idea that God is omnipotent
S- explains why we are unable to fully understand God
W- If God has decided already who will be saved or not, what is the point of worship, praying or even following a religion?
W- portrays God to be biased- why does he chose only some certain people to be saved?
what is hard determinism?
- they are called 'hard' determinists because they take a very strict approach
- all our actions had prior causes
- incompatible with free will
what is behaviourism?
a modern form of hard determinism
who discussed behaviourism?
-John B. Watson
- behaviour can be predicted and controlled
- this is because we live in a determined universe
- behaviour is influenced by heredity and environment- nature and nurture
- by manipulating the environment a person's behaviour can be altered
who was Watson influenced by?
Ivan Pavlov who conditioned dogs to salivate when they heard the sound of a bell
this is also known as 'operant conditioning'
al theories of determinism are influenced by who?
Isaac Newton's physics, according yo which the universe is governed by immutable laws of nature such as motivation and gravitation
what did John Locke say about determinism?
-freedom is an illusion
- This is illustrated by his story of a sleeping man in a locked room; on awakening he decides to stay where he is, not realising that the door to the room is locked. The man thinks he has made a free decision, but in reality he has no choice
what were Honderich's views?
there is no room for moral blame and no point in punishment for the sake of punishment
Each action has an effect and there is no room for free will
what are the strengths and weaknesses of hard determinism?
W- we cannot blame or praise people for their actions
S- it is true that how we are socialised and the environment that we live in effects our lives and HD highlights this
W- no one is morally responsible even for the most cold-blooded crimes
W- if determinism is true then all the horrible things that happen in the world had to happen- this is a veru pessimistic view of the world