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58 Cards in this Set

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Where the cells don't have nuclei


Where the cells have nuclei

Difference betwen Plant Cells and Animal Cells

Plant cell has everything that an animal cell does. However, the plant cells have the additional cell wall and chloroplasts. Additionally, plant cells have a large central vacuoles and animal cells have many small vacuoles.


A cell structure that performs a specific function for the cell.


-The control centre of the cell

-Contains genetic information that is stored on chromosomes (DNA)

-Carries coded instructions for all cell activity

-Before a cell divides, the DNA is duplicated inside the nucleus


- Called "power plants" of the cell because they make energy available to the cell

- Active cells (such as; muscle cells) need more mitochondrion than fat cells

- Contains enzymes that convert the stored energy to easily usable form; called cellular respiration.

glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + usable energy

-Produces the energy currency of the cell; ATP.


-Digests and recycle food particles, wastes, and old cell parts

-Common in animal cells, uncommon in plant cells

-Breakdown things to reuse the locked-in chemicals


-Found only in the plant cell

-Give plants their green colour

-Conducts photosynthesis

carbon dioxide + water + energy (sunlight) = glucose + oxygen

- With photosynthesis, the plant can make its own food (the mitochondria will metabolize the glucose)


-Makes proteins

-Ribosomes can be attached to the rough E.R. or floating freely

Endoplasmic Reticulum

-Network of tubes and pockets that extends throughout cytoplasm from nucleus

-It transports materials through the cell

-Rough E.R: packages and delivers proteins

-Smooth E.R: makes lipids which break down toxins


Plant cells have one large vacuole and animal can have many small ones.

- Storage of materials for the cell

- A single layer of membrane which contains substances, removes unwanted substances and maintains internal fluid pressure (turgor)

- For plants, the vacuole keeps the plant's stems and leaves firm.

Cell Membrane

- Controls what goes in and out of the cell (semi-permeable)

- Flexible and double-layered

- Water and oxygen molecules can pass through easily but large molecules like proteins cannot

-Supports the cell

Golgi Apparatus

- Processes, packages and transports proteins and materials that are to be removed from the cell.

Cell Wall

-Supports the plant cell

- It is a rigid structure made of cellulose

- Provides protection from physical injury

3 Main ideas of Cell Theory

1. All living things are made of one or more cells

2. The cell is the simplest unit that can carry out all life processes (basic unit of organization)

3. All cells come from other cells; they do not come from nonliving matter


Growth Phase 1: Increased volume of cytoplasm and organelles are being produced

Synthesis Phase: DNA is in the form of very long, thin invisible strands. This DNA is duplicated

Growth Phase 2: DNA is checked for errors.

During interphase the cell is also:

-taking in nutrients (for growth)

-Performing cellular respiration

-repairing damaged parts

-making more organelles

Mitosis (When the contents of the nucleus or nuclear information is being divided)






-DNA condenses, becomes visible.

-Now, the DNA is called chromosomes (composed of 2 chromatid and 1 centromere)

-Nuclear membrane starts to break down

-Centrioles move to opposite sides and attach spindle fibres to the centromeres


-Spindle fibres pull the chromosomes into a line in the middle of the cell.


-The centromere splits, the sister chromatids separate and move to opposite ends of the cell

-Now, the chromatids are called daughter chromosomes


Last phase of mitosis: during this phase, a nuclear membrane forms around each set of daughter chromosomes and the nucleolus reappears in each nucleus. The daughter chromosome then unwind into chromatin.


-In this phase, the cell divides the rest of the cell (cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane)

-Animal cells: The cells pinch off of each other

-Plant cells: A new wall is formed between the two nuclei


Chromosomes are made of DNA (condensed version); consists of 2 chromatid and 1 centromere.

Chromatid and Centromere

Chromatid: One of the two thread-like things of a chromosome

Centromere: What attaches the two chromatids together in a chromosome

Daughter Chromosome and Daughter Cell

Daughter Chromosome: Either one of the two split chromosome (previously known as sister chromatids)

Daughter Cell: Either one of the two cells after division

What may stop a cell from Dividing

- Signals from other cells that tell it to stop dividing

- Not enough nutrients for cell growth

- The DNA within the nucleus had not been replicated

- The DNA had been damaged

Why does a cell divide?

For organisms:

-To reproduce

-To grow

-To repair damage

What a cell needs to survive and why a cell cannot just grow larger

- A cell needs water and many chemicals

-If a cell is too large, the important chemicals and water cannot move through the cell fast enough


-When water enters and leaves a cell

-The water moves from low concentration of chemicals to high concentration.


-The movement of chemicals

-Chemicals move from higher concentrations to low concentrations of chemicals

Hierarchy of Structure

Cells, tissue, organ, organ system, organism

Cells (Animal Hierarchy)

The basic unit of living things

Tissues (Animal Hierarchy)

Groups of specialized cells that work together to perform a particular, but limited, function.





Epithelial Tissue

-Form a layer around other tissues

-Covers body surfaces and lines internal organs

Skin Epithelial: barrier between body and outside world.

Columnar Epithelial: lines intestine, stomach and glands.

Connective Tissue

-Provides support, protection, or insulation

Bone Tissue: needed for protection, support and movement

Fat Tissue: provide energy storage and insulation under organs and under skin

Blood Tissue: red cells (carry oxygen), white blood cells (protect the body), platelets (clots the blood).

Muscle Tissue

- Contains proteins that can contract and allow for movement

Skeletal Muscle: attached to bones to allow movement

Smooth Muscle: found in blood vessels and digestive organs

Cardiac Muscle: found in the heart

Nerve Tissue

- Consists of neurons that recieve and transfer electric signals in order to coordinate body actions.

Organs (Animal Hierarchy)

- Structures composed of different tissues working together to perform a complex body function.

- Example: Brain, Liver, Heart, Lungs and Kidneys

Organ Systems (Animal Hierarchy)

- A system of one or more organs and structures that work together to perform a vital body function.


Digestive system, circulatory system.

Organisms (Animal Hierarchy)

- An individual animal, plant, or single cell life form. Made of many different organ systems working together (except for single cell life forms).

Two main "Body Systems" of a plant

Shoot and Root System

Cells (Plant Hierarchy)

Like animals, plants are also composed of cells.

Tissues (Plant Hierarchy)

Dermal Tissue: Tissues that form the outer surfaces of the plant parts.

Vascular Tissue: Tissues specialized for the transportation of water, minerals and nutrients throughout the plant.

Ground Tissue: All the other tissues within a plant.

Dermal Tissue System

The dermal tissue system forms the outermost layer of a plant.

-includes both epidermal and periderm tissues

Epidermal tissue: A thin layer of cells that covers the surfaces of leaves, stems, and roots.

Periderm tissue: In woody plants, instead of epidermal tissue, periderm tissue that forms bark on stems and large roots are present.

Vascular Tissue System

The vascular tissue system is the transportation system that moves water, minerals, and other chemicals around the plant.

Two Types of Vascular Tissue:

-Xylem: transports water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots. Additionally, when xylem is fully formed, they are no longer living tissue.

-Phloem: transports solutions of sugar, nutrients and hormones throughout the plant (upwards and downwards). Phloem cells are alive.

Ground Tissue System

Ground tissues are the filler between the dermal and the vascular tissues.

- they manufacture nutrients by the process of photosynthesis

- store carbohydrates

- provides storage and support

Organ (Plant Hierarchy)

A group of tissues form an "organ"

- Roots

- Stem

- Leaves

- Flower

Organ System (Plant Hierarchy)

Two organ system

- Root System

-Shoot System

Cellular Differentiation

The process that produces specialized cells

- directed by the genetic information inside the cell

Stem Cells

(Found in animals)

- A type of cell that can differentiate into many different types of cell.

- Each daughter cell of a stem cell can develop into a different type of cell based on which part of its DNA are switched on

Embryonic Stem Cells

Exist within embryos and are able to differentiate into any kind of cells (unspecialized cells)

Tissue Stem Cells (a.k.a Adult Stem Cells)

Exist within specialized tissue and can only differentiate into certain types of cells (specialized).

Meristematic Cells

The plant equivalent of stem cells. They can differentiate into specialized tissue types

- Dermal Tissue

- Vascular Tissue

- Ground Tissue

Apical Meristems

Undifferentiated cells found at the tips of roots and shoots.

- Allows plants to grow longer and develop specialized tissues

Additionally, after maturation, most cells in plants do not divide anymore.

Lateral Meristems

Undifferentiated cells found under the bark in the stems and roots of woody plants.

- Cells that divide, enabling the plant to grow wider and develop specialized tissues in the stem.

Benefits of Stem Cell Research

Stem cell research can further develop regenerative medicine; which will increase survival rates for conditions such as, Parkinson's disease, regrow lost limbs, reduce animal testing and potentially clone healthy organs for sick patients

Ethical Dilemmas of Stem Cell Research

-Long term side effects are still unknown.

Only the rich would be able to afford it and once again it will give us too much power and the ability to play 'god'.

Factors that influence Cell Specialization

- Cell's organelles might not be evenly distributed after mitosis. Cells gets more vacuoles (storage), golgi bodies (packaging), mitochondria (energy) and ribosomes (protein).

- Environmental Conditions: The temperature and nutrients may influence the genes which are activated.

- Effects of neighbouring Cells: The location of a cell influences how it behaves.