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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What maternal factors increase the risk of congenital defects in the neonate?

Menstrual Difficulties (amenorrhoea)

Fertility difficulties

Pregnancy losses (15-25%)

Preterm labour


Abnormal lie

Define Verical fusion defects

Defective fuson of the caudal end of Mullerian duct and urgential sinus

-problems with vaginal canalization

Name examples of vertical fusion defects

Cervical agenesis

Transverse vaginal septum

Imperforate hymen

How do we manage verical fusion defects?

Surgical correction

Name the types of agenesis of Mullerian structures






Define agenisis of mullerian structures

Failure of Mullerien duct developement i.e. absence of uterus or presence of remnants only

-ovaries oresent, normal 46 XX

NName the co-morbities present with Mullerian agenesis

23% of promary amenorrhoea have agenesis

90% form part of Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome

Renal and skeletal abnormalities may be present

How do we manage Mullerian agenesis?

Vaginoplasty - dilators, excision of rudimentary uterine remnant, counselling

What is a didelphus uterus?

Complete duplication of the uterus

How do we manage a didelphus uterus


Define a bicornate uterus

Incomplete fusion of ducts, thus the external contour of the uterus is indented

What are the types of a bicornate uterus?

Compllete or partial

What complications can arise from a bicornate uteris?

No fertility issues BUT

recurrent miscarriages

fetal malpresentation

intervation rate increased during labour

premature laour

What is the management of a bicornate uterus

Metroplasty via laparoty or laparoscopy

Define a septate uterus?

Intrauterine avascular septum of varying lengths - external contour of the uterus normal

What are the types of septate uterus?

Complete of partial

What are some complications of a septate uterus?

Normal fertility BUT

poor prgnancy outcome

What is the management of a septate uterus?

Surgical excision of septum - hysteroscopic or laparoscopic

- Jones metroplasty

Define a unicornate uterus

Only one duct developed

What are the types of unicornate uterus?

Communicating, non-communicating, no cavity and no horn

How do we manage a unicornate uterus?

Surgery to remove non-communicating functional horn, cervical cerclage may be required

Define an arcuate uterus

Small outcrop in fundus - no external indent

NB - considered an anatomic variation

How do we manage a arcuate uterus

Inform and reassure patient