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37 Cards in this Set

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Hemoglobin is an heterotetramer, which means?

That it is composed of 4 portions separated into two groups. The groups are composed of differing subunits, an alpha subunit and beta subunit

Hemoglobin can bind how many oxygen molecules? What happens as more oxygen binds?

4; one for each subunit. As more oxygen binds, it moves the Fe it binds to into the ring below it. This movement moves the other subunits, and increases their affinity for oxygen

Define T-State and R-state of Hemoglobin

T-State (Tensed State) is when no oxygen is bound and has a lower affinity for oxygen. R-state (Relaxed state) is when 1-4 oxygen molecules are bound and have a higher affinity for oxygen

What does 2,3 BPG stand for? What is it used for?

2, 3 Bisphosphoglycerate.


It binds to hemoglobin and stabilizes the T-state, promoting the release of bonded oxygen molecules

How do Protons and CO2 affect Hemoglobin? Why?

Protons and CO2 (by becoming Carbonate and H+) decrease the pH, which protonate the Histidine in Hemoglobin. This allows it to interact with negative ions and stabilizes the T-state, promoting O2 release and low affinity

Name the Structure

Name the Structure

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

Name this structure

Name this structure

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide + (NAD+)

Name this structure

Name this structure

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide H (NADH)

Name this sugar

Name this sugar

Alpha Glucose

Name this sugar

Name this sugar

Beta Fructose

What is mutarotation?

Mutarotation is the constant forming and breaking of sugar forms, from chain to ring to chain to ring etc... This allows for effortless switching between alpha and beta forms.

Glucose is broken down into how many molecules of pyruvate, and by what process?

Glycolysis and 2 molecules of pyruvate

In anaerobic conditions, how can pyruvate proceed through metabolism?

Fermentation in yeast and single-celled organisms produces 2 ethanol and CO2, while in Multi-cellular organisms it produces 2 lactate

How is glucose trapped in cells?

It is phosphorlyated by hexokinase. This is irreversible and makes glucose very reactive.

What converts Glucose-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate?

The enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase (Also known as phosphohexose isomerase or phosphoglucosoisomerase)

What comes after creating the fructose-6-phosphate in glycolysis?

We use phosphofructoskinase-1 (PFK) to transform it into Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate

Aldolase works on what in Glycolysis?

Aldolase cleaves Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

What is PFK, and why is it important?

PFK (Phosphofructokinase-1) is the enzyme responsible for adding a phosphate onto Fructose-6-phosphate, and is the major regulatory enzyme of glycolysis

Why is dihydroxyacetone phosphate problematic?

Because we want all of the products of glycolysis to be identical, so we need to change it to Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate with triose phosphate isomerase

Why is Triosphosphate Isomerase a kinetically "perfect" enzyme?

Because it works so quickly through an enedial intermediate that it simply has to wait for diffusion to take place. As such, it is considered "perfect" in how quickly it functions

1,3 bisphosphoglycerate is made from what molecule and uses what enzyme?

1,3 bisphosphoglycerate is made from glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and the enzyme used is glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

1,3 bisphosphoglycerate is commonly used for what purpose and why? What does it produce as a side effect?

It is used to phosphorylate ADP into ATP as it is extremely reactive and has a high phosphorylation potential. It also produces 3-phosphoglycerate as a bonus

What is phosphoglycerate mutase used for?

It is used to change 3-phosphoglycerate into 2-phosphoglycerate in glycolysis

How do you increase the phosphorlyation potential of 2-phosphoglycerate?

Use an enolase to remove water from it, forming a double bond between carbons and creating the compound phosphoenol pyruvate

How do you get two ATP from 3-phosphoglycerate?

Change it into phosphoenol pyruvate (see other cards or describe), then use the enzyme pyruvate kinase to phosphorlyate ADP using them.

What is the net equation of Glycolysis?

Glucose + 2 ADP + 2 NAD+ + 2 P(i) -->


2 Pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH +2 H+ + 2H20

Take a scrap sheet of paper. Draw the pathway of glycolysis through diagrams. Include all enzymes (feel free to come back to this later)



What does FAD stand for?

Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide. For interesting note, FAD is made using AMP (Adenine Monophosphate) and FMN, it's similar counterpart is called Flavin Mononucleotide, and is simply FAD without AMP

Where does regulation occur in glycolysis? What enzymes regulate it?

Regulation occurs at the irreversible reactions of glycolysis, with the enzymes Phosphofructose Kinase (PFK), Pyruvate Kinase and Hexokinase

What is the main regulatory enzyme for glycolysis? What regulates it?

Phosphofructose Kinase which creates Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate is the key regulatory enzyme. It is inhibited by ATP, H+ and Citrate, while it is promoted by AMP and Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate.

What is the first irreversible reaction and it's corresponding enzyme in glycolysis? What promotes and inhibits the enzyme?

The phosphorlyation of glucose is the first irreversible reaction with hexokinase. It is inhibited by it's product, glucose-6-phoshpate and is not promoted by anything.

What enzyme turns phosphoenolpyruvate into pyruvate? Why is it important? What regulates it?

Pyruvate kinase, it is important because it is irreversible and regulates glycolysis, and is promoted by Fructose-1,6 bisphosphate, and inhibited by ATP and Alanine

What is the transformation of Pyruvate into Acetyl CoA called? What are the other products?

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, and it also produces/regenerates NADH and CO2

What is the name of the enzyme that phosphorlyates E1 of the Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex? What is it regulated by?

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex associate kinase (PDCAK), and it is promoted by ATP, NADH and Acetyl CoA, while it is inhibited by pyruvate, ADP and NAD+.

What does E2 of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase complex do, and what is it inhibited by?

It produces Acetyl CoA and is inhibited by it's very product.

What does E3 of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase complex do, and what is it inhibited by?

It produces NADH and is inhibited by it's very product.

What is phosphotate and what does it do? What activates it?

It dephosphorylates E1 and thus allows it to work normally. While E1 slowly dephosphorylates itself, this is much quicker. It is activated by insulin and Ca2+ cell signaling.