Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
muscarinic antagonists
clinical use in GI?
peptic ulcer
block M1 receptors on ECL cells (decrease histamine secretion) and block M3 receptors on parietal cells (decreases H+)
pirenzepine, propantheline
toxicity = bradycardia
clinical use
antibody to TNF-alpha
crohn's disease, RA
respiratory infection, fever, hypotension
clinical use
combo anti-inflammatory (mesalamine) and anti-biotic (sulfapyradine)
used in crohns and UC
reversible oligospermia
epithelium type in:
non-keratinized squamous
non-ciliated columnar
mekel's diverticulum
failure of obliteration of the vitello-intestinal duct, located in the distal ileum, it is a true diverticulum with mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria. Common – 2% of population. Can cause bleeding, obstruction
- Part 2 of duodenum -
marks embryologic meeting of fore and midgut. And where outpuching of liver and pancreas
- Hirschprung’s disease –
absence of ganglion cells (neural crest doesnt migrate) in the wall of the colon. congenital - presents in first few days of life.
hepatoduodenal ligament
part of the lesser omentum and separates the greater peritoneal sac from the right lesser peritoneal sac, it contains the common bile duct, the proper hepatic artery, and the portal vein
- Splenorenal ligament
the portion of the dorsal mesentery between the posterior abdominal wall and the spleen – it transmits the splenic artery and vein
- Heterotopic rests
small areas of normal tissue in abnormal sites
- Lipoprotein lipase
releases TGs from chylomicron cores. LPL is located on the external surface of the vascular endothelium
- Motilin
is a hormone released by the SI during fasting. It initiates migratory motor complexes (MMCs)
- Coronary ligament –
reflection of peritoneum – found on top and r posterior side of liver
- Esophagus muscle in muscularis propria layer
o Upper 1/3 – skeletal
o Middle 1/3 – skeletal and smooth
o Lower 1/3 – only smooth muscle
which salivary gland produces the most serous saliva? the most mucus?
- As you proceed from the midline laterally acini in the sublingual gland are almost pure mucous cells, while acini in the submandible gland contain a mix of mucous and serous cells, and acini in the parotid gland are mostly pure serous cells
- Reye syndrome-
fatty liver with encephalopathy. An acquired mitochondrial abnormality
kids VZV, asprin
- Omphalocele –
herniation of abdominal viscera through the abdominal wall near the umbilicus
- Meconium ileus
a manifestation of CF due to viscid pancreatic secretion which get stuck in the small bowel
- Bile pigment stones (calcium bilirubinate)
what are they derived from?
who gets them?
are derived from degradation of heme, seen in patients with chronic hemolytic disorders (such as sickle cell) and alcoholic cirrhosis
- Zollinger-ellison syndrome –
a gastrinoma. From ectopic gastric tissue (usually in pancreas or duodenum)
the most important predictors of metastatic potential of carcinoid tumors?
location and size
- Primary billiary cirrhosis –
autoimmune disorder, distruction of medium sized intrahepatic bile ducts. Cholestatic picture develops. Itching is due to elevated levels of circulating bile salts. Most progress to cirrhosis. 90% have anti-mitochondrial autoantibodies
- Chagas disease –
GI finding?
other findings?
achalasia, heart failure, due to protozoan parasite – trypanosome cruzi found in south America
- Mallory-weiss tears
occur as a complication of repeated vomiting – is a tear of the esophagus that results in bleeding – usually will heal on their own
- Esophageal rings
what are they?
names based on location?
are mucosal folds in the esophagus. They are called:
o Webs in the upper esophagus
o Schatzki rings in the lower esophagus (at the gastro-esoph junction)
- Menetrier’s disease –
associated symptoms?
also known as protein-losing gastroenteropathy. Increased mucus production leads to protein losses, may cause hypoalbuminemia and edema
- Obstructive jaundice
lab findings?
leads to a back up of conjugated (direct) bilirubin --> increased conjugated bilirubin in blood and urine
- Plummer-vinson syndrome triad?
atrophic glossitis, esophageal webs, and iron deficiency anemia. Have increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus
prokinetic with association with serious cardiac arrhythmias, including torsade de pointes, especially when given with erythromycin
jaundice in cystic duct blockage? common bile duct blockage?
no and yes
side effect of cimetidine that is unique from other H2 blockers?
cimetidine has the effect of hepatic enzyme inhibitor, decreases the metabolism of other hepatically metabolized meds such as phenobarbitol
clinical use
is a dopamine antagonist so will exacerbate parkinsons symptoms
esophageal diverticula from mouth caudally?
zenkers - presents with regurgitation of food
traction - asymptomatic, mid-esophagus
epiphrenic - tx - heller myotomy
autoimmune esophageal dysfunction
scleroderma (aka systemic sclerosis)
loss of peristalsis and hypotensive LES
also has thickening of the skin
- The liver can be divided into 3 zones.
Zone 1 is periportal, zone 3 is associated with the central vein
Zone 3 contains the P450 oxidase enzymes system and is most sensitive to injury
somatic efferent inputs to internal and external anal sphincters
pudendal nerve
caries the sensory afferent info from the rectum
pelvic nerve
- Tumors from the penis, vagina, and anal canal can drain into what lymph nodes?
superficial inguinal lymph nodes – easily palpable
-Tumors from the stomach can metastasize to what lymph nodes
the easily palpable superclavicular nodes (virchow’s nodes)
-Mallory bodies are what?
found when?
eosinophillic cytoplasmic inclusions (“alcoholic hyaline”) that are found in the largest numbers in alcoholic hepatitis
-Metronidazole + alcohol causes what side effect?
can cause a disulfiram reaction of nausea, tachycardia
-Budd-chiari syndrome –
hepatic vein obstruction. May occur as a complication of thrombogenic and myeloproliferative disorders, including polycythemia vera
marker of colorectal cancer?
also high in cirrhosis and pancreatitis