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62 Cards in this Set

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What is air pressure?
The weight of air above a given point on Earth's surface
Which of the following forces affects the movement of air in and around high- and low-pressure areas?
Pressure gradient force

Coriolis force

Gravitational force

Friction force

On TEST: All of the above
Which areas is characterized by rain throughout the year and is associated with tropical rain forests?
Intertropical Convergence Zone near the equator
Which of the following statements DOES NOT apply to trade winds?
Utilized by ancient mariners sailing from North America to Europe
Why are the regions, including deserts, near subtropical highs dry?
Air aloft sinks downward, undergoes compression, and heats up
Where are the polar jet streams located?
Near the subpolar low-pressure cells near 60 degrees north and south latitudes where cold and warm air masses meet
Describe Westerlies
Westerlies occur at more northern (or southern) latitudes than the trade winds
Describe Subtropical Highs
Occur close to 30o north and south latitudes

Downwelling air is dry due to Worlds largest deserts are there
What is Intertropical Convergence Zone
When Rising air generates band of low pressure
What is Polar front?
the area of contrast between cold and warm air masses
Rising air along the ITCZ, once aloft, moves towards the poles because of?
Temperature differences between the equator and poles
Describe Mountain-Valley breezes
During the day, valley air heats rapidly and rises upslope. At night, mountain air cools quicker and moves downslope into the valley.
Monsoonal rains on the continent of India are?
Are greatest during the summer
Which of the following statements does NOT apply to the Pacific Decadal and North Atlantic oscillations?
Occur locally over land only during the summer months
Which of the following statements does NOT apply to pressure surfaces?
Vertical surface where two contrasting air masses meet
What two factors will cause seawater to increase in density and therefore sink?
Cooler temperatures and increased salinity
Which of the following LEAST LIKELY affects the circulation patterns of surface water in the oceans?
Seawater evaporation
Which of the following statements about deep-ocean water is FALSE?
Circulation patterns are in the form of gyres within ocean basins
Where is most of the Freshwater on Earth stored?



CH5
Ice and glaciers
What is Relative Humidity?
Mass of water vapor in air divided by the mass of water vapor that the air can hold
What is Specific Humidity
Mass of water vapor per kilogram of dry air
What is Dew Point?
Temperature at Which Water Vapor Begins to Condense
What is Vapor Pressure?
The Amount of Pressure Exerted By Water Vapor in the Atmosphere
What is true about Air temperature and Relative Humidity?
The warmer the air, the lower the relative humidity
What happens to an air parcel that ascends from near the ground surface to higher altitudes?
Air parcel expands and cools at higher altitudes
at what stage is latent heat released and its value negative?
When Water vapor condenses into liquid water
What is Adiabatic process
The warming and cooling rates for a parcel of expanding or compressing air
Describe a condition which results in a stable atmosphere?
Rising air parcel has a higher adiabatic rate than the environmental lapse rate
Describe Cumulus clouds?
– Low-level puffy clouds
– Composed of water droplets
– Associated with fair weather
Describe Cirrus Clouds
- Cirrus are high altitude clouds
- Composed of ice crystals
- Wispy forms
- Often associated with an oncoming storm
Describe Nimbostratus clouds
yield precipitation and Showers typically fall as drizzling rain
When does Valley fog form?
when Cool, dense air settles in a valley
What is Moist adiabatic rate?
when the average rate at which ascending, water-saturated air cools by expansion
What is Environmental lapse rate?
Actual lapse rate for air at a particular place and time
What is Dry adiabatic rate?
the rate at which “dry” air cools by expansion or heats by compression
What is Normal lapse rate?
Average decreasing temperature with increasing altitude
An air mass classified as maritime polar (mP) will most likely be?
Moist and cold
When does An occluded front form?
Two bodies of cold air collide, forcing the warm air between them to rise so that the latter is no longer in contact with the ground
When does Warm fronts form?
When Warm low density air pushes cold dense air
When does Cold fronts form?
When Cold dense air pushes low density warmer air
When does Stationary Front form?
When Cold arctic air penetrates into continental interior and meets warm
Which statements regarding storm tracts is FALSE
Average storm tracts shift northward into Canada during the winter and southward into the U.S. during the summer
Describe Cumulonimbus clouds
Strong thunderstorms, lightening and tornadoes
What does NOT lead to hurricane formation?
Strong wind aloft shears off the top of the developing cyclone
Most runoff on land occurs in the subsurface as groundwater. T or F
FALSE
What percentage of water evaporated over land and water eventually ends up as precipitation?
100%
What is potential evapotranspiration?
Amount of water that would evaporate and transpire under optimum (saturated) moisture conditions
In the water balance equation, actual evapotranspiration (ACTET) is equal to?
Potential evapotranspiration MINUS deficit
what happens to excess moisture that cannot be held in the soil?
Excess moisture percolates downward to the deeper groundwater zone
Which statement about groundwater is FALSE?
Groundwater only consists of subsurface water that occurs above the water table
Whats true about groundwater
Groundwater flows from areas of recharge to discharge

- occurs in pore spaces of soil

- important source of freshwater

- can be contaminated easily
What is a measure of how readily groundwater flows through soil, sediment, and bedrock?
Permeability
What has the highest porosity and would therefore make the best aquifer?
Gravel
In order for an aquifer to be an artesian system and supply well-water to the surface without pumping, the aquifer must be WHAT?
Inclined AND bounded above and below by aquicludes
If groundwater was excessively pumped by wells over a long period of time, which of the following would most likely result?
Land subsidence
Which process is LEAST-LIKELY to influence Earth's climate system?
Groundwater flow
Which tropical climates receives the LEAST amount of annual rainfall?
Savanna
A continental-arctic (cA) air mass that is very cold and dry would most-likely be characterized by WHAT climate
Tundra Climate
Most of the Gulf coastal region, including Houston, is characterized by WHAT Climate?
Humid subtropical Climate
What is NOT associated with El Nino?
Increased upwelling of deep ocean water along the west coast of South America
computer models calculate future rates of global warming based on our continued use of WHAT?
Fossil fuels
Climatologists attempt to predict future climate changes using WHAT?
Computer models known as General Circulation Models