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39 Cards in this Set

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______ is just one part of cell reproduction

Mitosis

Mitosis is the set of events that occur within the ________ of the cell.

Nuclear region

______ is the phase of cell reproduction where the nuclear region splits in two.

Telophase

______ is the phase of cell reproduction where the entire cell splits in two.

Cytokinesis

Interphase is the _____ phase of cell reproduction

Longest

Prophase is the longest phase of ________

Mitosis

Telophase is the ______ phase of Mitosis

Last

Cytokinesis is the last phase of ________

Cell reproduction

Everything inside the cell is in the process of ______ during interphase

doubling

We can first _____ (under the microscope) the doubled chromatids during prophase. They doubled during interphase

See

____ is a surveillance protein. It analyzes DNA and if everything is ok, it will allow RB to be phosphorylated, which will lead to the process of cell reproduction.

p53

If there appears to be DNA error, p53 will stop phosphorylation of RB. Cell reproduction will not be initiated and the cell will remain in _____

G1

Many times, a cancerous cell will exhibit a DNA error. P53 will recognize this and ___________________ of RB and the cancerous cell will die.

Phosphorylation

If p53 is inhibited, a cancerous cell will not be recognized and therefore:

Phosphorylation will continue and the cell will proceed through cell reproduction perpetuating the DNA error (in this case, perpetuating cancer.)

If the p53 gene is inhibited, it cannot produce Thrombospondin and therefore cannot control:

Angiogenesis

More angiogenesis represents more ____ for the cancerous cells

food



Our body inadvertently feeds

cancer cells

Most cancer cells have the same _____ or ______ as normal cell have, and therefore the body does not recognize the abnormal cells, and therefore, feeds them

glycolipid or glycoprotein

All cells of the body have the RB protein (produced by the RB gene) even though it is called ______. It was first discovered in the retina of the eyes of children with eye cancer.

retinoblastoma

The RB gene is located on

chromosome number 13

The p53 gene is located on

chromosome number 17

If a patient who is undergoing chemotherapy treatment cuts their finger, the wound will be slow to heal because:

in order to heal the wound, cells in the skin have to undergo reproduction

Doctors will tell a patient who is undergoing chemotherapy treatment to try not to be around others who are infected with a pathogen of some sort. If the patient becomes ill with a pathogen:

the leukocytes (2nd line of defense cells) must reproduce to fight the infection. They can't reproduce due to the chemotherapy treatment.

Many times, the doctor will tell the patient who is undergoing chemotherapy treatment that their:

immune system will be depressed. The patient is immuncompromised

Another way to possibly treat cancer would be to:

repair the p53 gene

Another way to possibly treat cancer would be to:

increase thrombospondin, which in turn will control angiogenesis

The body does not recognize cancerous cells as foreign cells because they have the same

identifiable glycolipids or glycoproteins as other cells in the body

Another way to possibly treat cancer would be to:

tag the cancerous cells, thereby changing their identifiable markers making them appear to be foreign

There are numerous things that deactivate p53 gene

which might allow cells to become cancerous

Some sources indicate that:

50% of all cancers are associated with mutations in the p53 gene

Liver cancer

20% p53 mutation occurrence

Breast cancer

20% p53 mutation occurrence

Prostate cancer

10-30% p53 mutation occurrence

Lung cancer

70% p53 mutation occurrence

Pancreatic cancer

90% p53 mutation occcurrence

Terminal ends of DNA consist of units called

telomeres

Telomeres are formed by the enzyme

Telomerase

As we age, telomerase becomes inactive and telomeres become less and less

DNA stops being protected and the cells stop dividing

90% of cancerous cells have had

reactivated telomerase