Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/38

Click to flip

38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name all the food groups.
Carbohydrates, Fats, Protein, Fibre, Vitamins and Minerals
Why do you need energy?
To fuel the chemical reactions in your body.
What are the chemical reactions called?
Metabolism
What effects the rate of metabolism?
Muscle to fat ratio; size; gender; exercise and inherited genes
What does eating too much cause?
Obesity that can lead to type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease.
What does eating too little cause?
Malnutrition, which can lead to; slow growth; poor resistance to infection; irregular periods in women; scurvy and rickets.
Not getting enough exercise can lead to...
obesity.
Some inherited factors can cause..
an increase in cholesterol and an under active thyroid gland.
Name the two main types of pathogen.
Bacteria and viruses
How do bacteria make you ill?
By releasing toxins when they multiply and damaging cells.
How can Viruses make you ill?
By damaging cells.
What do white blood cells do?
White blood cells travel around the blood stream and target pathogens by producing antibodies (like anti-body they destroy bodies/don't confuse with antigens)
What do antitoxins do?
These counteract toxins produced by bacteria.
What do vaccination involve?
Injecting a person with a dead or inactive pathogen into a human.
What happens to white blood cells when someone is vaccinated?
They produce antibodies to attack the pathogens antigens. The white blood cells now have the antibodies so can produce them quicker.
List the pros and cons of vaccinations.
Pros-They help control infections, can prevent epidemics
Cons-Vaccines don't always work, vaccines can cause reactions (e.g. swelling, fever, seizures)
What is the difference between painkillers and antibiotics?
Painkillers relive pain (duh!) but don't tackle the cause of the disease. Antibiotics kill (or prevent the growth of) bacteria but don't destroy viruses.
What did Semelweis make people do?
Wash hands and clean equipment.
What is Antibiotic Resistance?
It is when bacteria evolve to be resistant to some antibiotics.
What is a stimulus?
A change in your environment.
Name the five sense organs.
Eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin.
What is the order of neurons in the reflex arc?
Stimulus-sensory neuron-relay neuron-motor neuron, effector.
What do reflexes prevent?
Injury.
Define Hormones.
Hormones are chemical messages sent in the blood.
Name the main differences between hormones and nerves.
Nerves-Fast, Short time, Precise.
Hormones-slower, long time, general area.
What is FSH and what does it do?
Follicle stimulating hormone-cause maturing of the egg. Stimulates the production of oestrogen.
What is oestrogen and what does it do?
inhibits FSH stimulates production of LH.
What is LH and what does it do?
Stimulates the release of an egg.
What does progesterone do?
It stimulates the production of cervical mucus that stops sperm reaching the egg.
What is IVF?
In vitro fertilization. It involves collecting eggs and sperm and fertilizing them in a lab. Then growing them into embryos and transferring them to a woman uterus.
What is auxin?
A plant growth hormone that conrols growth near tips of roots and shoots of plants. It is mainly on the dark side of roots.
What is homostasis?
All the functions of the body, which help maintain a constant internal temperature.
What is a double blind trail?
It is were neither the doctor nor the patient knows whether the drug is real or not.
What is a recreational drug?
A drug taken for fun.
What was Lamarck's theory?
That if, say giraffes, stretched to eat the top leaves then there offspring would have longer necks.
What was Darwin's theory and why was it not excepted to start with?
The theory of evolution. Animals had to adapt to survive. It was not excepted as there was no proof-this came with the discovery of genes and DNA.
What is a trophic level?
A feeding level in a pyramid of biomass.
What is a Synapse?
The connection between to neurones.