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154 Cards in this Set

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Offensive allemande 10 Mai, 1940

Invasion de la Belgique, Allemande va vers Paris

L’exode de la France

Les français partent de la france après l’invasion allemagne



10 Juin 1940

Mussolini declare la guerre sur la france

Paul Reynaud

President du conseil depuis Mars 1940

Weygand

Militaire Français, favorable a l'armistice

Pétain

ministre d’état depuis Mai 1940, conserver gouvernement en france pendant occupation

16 Juin 1940

Reynaud remplace par Pétain

24 Juin 1940

Pétain signe armistice avec Italie

ligne de demarcation

france était coupe en deux (Pyrénées) nord=occupée, sud=libre

pillage economique

germans take all resources from france during occupation

raflent des travailleurs

taking workers from france to help germans war effort

solution finale

kill all jews, starts in 1942

Vichy

french gov’t in zone libre, end of 3rd republic, extreme droit, Revolution Nationale, “travail, famille, patrie”, led by Pétain, collaboration w/ Nazis (meet between Petain and Hitler 1940)

Pierre Laval, François Darlan

also part of Vichy, right hand men to Petain

tickets de rationnement cartes d'alimentation

food stamps/ration tickets

Novembre 1942

zone libre become occupied

Forms of collaboration

-economique=relève(libration of 1 prisoner for every 3 volunteers) ; STO(service du travail obligatoire)

-Militaire=légions de volontaires qui fight w/ germans


-Politique=Milice (anti-jew propaganda)JOSEPH DARNAND


-Antisémite= Juin 1942 (velodrome)

Collaboration Individuelle

-délation=annon. letters turning in spies/jews


-publications in favor of german ideals


-participation in legions de volontaires

Resistance exterieure

Led by General De Gaulle in London


(L’appel du 18 juin, calls out to french people to resist)


African colonies (Tchad, Cameroun, Congo, Oubangui)



FFL

Forces français libres

CFLN

comité français de liberation nationale; created by de Gaulle in spring 1943

resistance interieure

-individual actions against germany


Maquis=become organized in 1941


1943=bring in troops from STO to maquis



goals of resistance

-give hope


-destroy transportation, war tools, make life hard for germans


-protect jews and resistants


-help the allies



Big names in resistance

Lucy Aubrac; Marie Reynoard; Colonal Rémy

Jean Moulin

helps unify resistance in 1943; saw de Gaulle as commander; tortured and killed by Klaus Barbie in 1944

CNR

conseil national de la resistance; created in mai 1943 by Moulin

FFI

forces françaises de l’intérieur; participate in deparquement and helping allies w/ liberation

Maquis

resistant groups in french mountains/wilderness; construct army of resistants w/i france

May 8 1945

France free from German control

Principal Alliances

-L’axe rome berlin (avril 1939)


-Non aggression germano-sovietique (aout 1939)


-L’alliance franco-britannique

AXE

-Sept 1939-Juin1941=Allm., Italie, Jap., URSS


-Juin1941-Dec1945 = Allm., Italie, Japon

ALLIES

Sept1939-Juin1940=Roy.Uni + France


Juin1940-Juin1941=Roy.Uni.


Juin1941-Dec1941=RoyUni+URSS


Dec1941-1945=RoyUni + URSS + USA

German Strategy

-Hitler politiques


-high power military


-fast war


-blitzkrieg


-offensive based on avion power



Allie Strategy

-deffensive


-stay behind Ligne Maginot

Phase Européenne

-1939-1942


-1 Sept, 1939=Hitler invades Pologne


-3 Sept 1939 = France+RoyUni declare war


-Sept-Mai 1940 = drôle de guerre


-9 avril 1940= germ. occupy Danemark et Norvège


-10 Mai 1940 = germ. invade Pays Bas, Belgique et Luxembourg


- Mai 1940 = exode français


-10 Juin 1940= ital. declares war on france


-17 juin 1940= petian dealers armistice


-18 juin 1940 - de Gaulle gives speech from london


22 juin 1940 - france signs armistice


juin 1940-mai 1941= bataille d’Angleterre


-submarine warfare, invasion of Egypt/Greece by germ.





Ligne Maginot

fortified land in the north east of france, built between 1930-1939

Phase Mondiale

-Juin 22 1941=invasion of URSS by germ.


-dec 1941= USA enters war (pearl harbor)


-rest of war



Tournant de la guerre

1942


-asian front=Midway (juin 1942)


americans win


-african front = El Alamein (23 oct-11 nov.)


english win


-russian front= Stalingrad (aout 42-fev 1943)


russians win



L’effondrement de l'axe

1943


-allies land in and gain victory over italy


-russian offensive moves in the east


-pacifique islands taken back by USA


1944


-eastern slovic countries liberated


-Normandy beaches (6 juin)


-Paris liberated (15 aout, general Leclerc)


1945


-allies cross le Rhin (mars)


-russians enter germany


-Hitler suicide (30 avril)


-armistics signed May 8 1945



Atomic Bombs

Hiroshima (6 aout), Nagasaki (9 aout)


Dropped by Truman

Yalta

Feb 1945, Roosevelt (USA), Churchill(RU) and Staline (Russ) divide up europe


Creation of ONU

Belle epoque

1890-1914


-outward projection of good life


-reality much worse

Evangalisme

misionaries sent to 3rd world countries, first wave of colonialism



french colonies

mostly in northern africa

chemin de fer Congo-Océan

railroad built across africa from 1921-34, 500 km of tracks



exposition mondial

shows best technologies of the time, hosted in Paris April 1900

Olympic Games

Mai-Oct 1900


-hosted in france


-first women allowed to participate



Toulouse Lautrec

artist (cabaret painter)

Inventions

-la fee électricité


-Cinema begins w/ frère lumières 1895


-first metro line 14 july 1900


-Louis Blériot flys english channel (la manche) 25 july 1909



Separation of church and state

law made in 1905

Institutions of 3rd Republic

-President (top authority, elected every 7 yrs by Ass. Nat’l)


-Senat, Deputés, Ministers, conseils généraux


-All men over 21 can vote

parti radical

-dominate political party until 1920s


-created in 1901


-republicaine, anticléricalisme, patriotisme, and liberalisme



SFIO

-section française internationale ouvriers


-gauche radical, created in 1905


-marxisme

CGT

active syndicat


created in 1895

catastrophe de courrière

Mining accident (1200/1800 men dead)


10 mars 1905



Jean Jaurès

1859-1914


socialiste, pacifist politician


assasination rallies union of la gauche (union sacrée)

Lloyd George, Clemenceau, Wilson

3 major negotiators for Diktat de versailles

Diktat de Versailles

28 Juin 1919, end of WWI


- Pertes territoriales importantes.


- Retour de l'Alsace Lorraine à laFrance.


- limitation del'armée à 100.000 hommes sansarmement lourd avec interdiction duservice militaire .


- Occupation et démilitarisation de laRhénanie .- L'Allemagne est déclarée responsable dela guerre et devra payer de lourdesréparations .

Le choc de la crise

-begins in Germ. 1929


-6 mill chomeurs in 1932


-cause of major german anger, esp after WWI

Hitler’s rise to power

Becomes head of Nazi party in 1930s, aides in growth of Nazi party under two main ideals =


1. bread and work


2. Blames jews, communists and Weimar republic for crisis


Becomes chancellor 30 Jan, 1933



Hitler’s early dictatorship

-28 Feb, 1933 incendie du Reichstag


-elimination of communists


-23 mars 1933 : Hitler obtient les pleins pouvoirs pour 4 ans


-2 août 1934 : Mort d'Hindenburg, Hitler se déclare chef d'état =Reich Führer


-1933 = re-establishment of military/hitler youth


-1936 remilitarization of Rhénanie


- region on the boarder of Belgique (violation of DdV)



L’espace vital

what Hitler called all “german” lands that he wanted to reunite

l'Anschluss

Hitler’s invasion of Austria using political intimidation


Autriche is annexed the 13 March 1938



La conférence de Munich

-28-30 sept 1938


-Meeting between Germans, French, English and Italians in Munich


-Other three agree to let Germany take les Sudètes


-Hitler then invades les Sudètes in Oct 1938

Hitler’s Annexations

-Sudètes = Oct 1938


-Bohême Moravie = Mar 1939



Sept 1 1939

-Hitler invades Poland



Establishment of 4th republic

-CNR regroups with other major resistant groups, the 2 major clandestine syndicats, and 6 major political parties

Major resistant groups

-Combat


-Liberation Zone nord


-Libération (sud)


-Front National


-Francs-tireurs partisans (FTP)


-Organization civil et militaire (OCM)


-Ceux de la resistance


-ceux de la liberation

Objectives of re-establishing 4th republic

-Practical urgent matters


-find all traitors, get rip of all german troops, establish liberation committees


-Re-establish freedoms


-democracy, universal suffrage,freedom of speech/press, re-establish jewish citizens

economy of 4th republic

-Nationalization of resources


-Nationalization of insurance and banks



Social reforms of 4th republic

-re-adjustment of salaries


-re-established independent trade unions (syndicalisme)


-creation of sécurité social


-welfare to help families (esp. have babies)



CFLN

comité français de libération national


established Juin 1943


Union between French libration in London (led by de Gaulle) and French military commander in Algeria (led by Giraud)

GPF

gouvernement provisoire de la repub. franç.


presided over by de Gaulle


-annuled Vichy laws


-re-established republic institutions


-organized elections


-disarmed the resistance


-manage the purification

Épuration Sauvage et legal

-9,000 french who collaborated with germans killed in the streets


-Others brought to trial


-military tribunals started aug 1945


-7,000 sentenced to death (only 737 executed)


Pétain is allowed to live in exile



21 april 1944

-women given right to vote



29 april 1945

french democracy restarts with coal elections



Oct 21 1945

4th republic officially established



Structure of 4th republic

-president elected for 7 years


-President is elected by National Assembly and Conseil de la republic


-People vote for members of NA and CdlR

Resignation of de Gaulle

-Jan 1946


-Finds political parties too important and the president too weak

Le droite a la dignité

-new right added to 4th repub. constitution



Marshel Plan

aide money given to reconstruct european countries by USA (1947)





1949

-Jan. rations on bread are lifted


-Dec. rations on sugar and gas are lifted



Baby boom

yup it happened in france too

Survivants

over 2 million war survivors (camps, POW, etc) return to france starting in 1945

CECA

communauté européenne du charbon et de l’acier (steel)


established 1951


Created by robert schuman and jen monnet

traité de rome

created in 1957


unified belgique, france, RFA, italie, luxemburg, and pays-bas in a common market





Weaknesses of 4th republic

-political instability


-ministers use power too extremely


-inter-party alliances add to instability


-unrest in Algeria begins to build

Presidents of 4th republic

-Auriol 1946


-Coty 1954



Crise de 13 mai (1958)

-major time of conflict w/ Algeria


-creates enough unrest to allow de Gaulle to establish 5th republic (current republic)


-fully established sept 28, 1958

1ere empire colonial

-france holds land in north of north america


16th century

Jaques Cartier

french man who began colonization of canada in 1534

Samuel de Champlain

founded Québec in 1608

Cavalier de la Salle

expands french lands down to Louisiana 1682

French in Africa

-First french colonies include Madagascar Pondichéry and Chandernagor


-1895 Sénégal, Soudan, Guinée, et côte d’ivoire form L’afrique occidentale français

End of 1st french colonial empire

-loose most of their important colonies after Treaty of Paris ending 7 years war (1763)


-Napoleon sells Louisiana in 1803


-1804 Haiti gains independence

Conquering of Algeria

1830-1848 = conquest of Algeria


-1830-land in Algeria


-1847- surrender by And el-Kader


-1848- algeria divided into 3 french departments

Invasions of 2ed colonial empire

-1830-48=Algeria


-Sénegal, Cochinchine, Cambodge, nouvelle Calédonie (By Nap. III)


-1881 Tunisie passes into french protection


-1912 Maroc passes into french protection


In the 20th Century france has 2ed largest colonial empire

Jules Ferry

Responsible for the creation of french indochine in 1885



l’Afrique équatorial français

-1910, made up of Tchad, Congo, Gabon and Oubangui-Chari

Big waves of decolonization

-1945-54 = Asia


-1955-64 = Africa



Reasons for decolonization

-loss of powerful cities during the war


-USA and USSR spread message of decolonization during cold war


-ONU establishes basic human rights for all


-Rise of nationalist movements w/i colonies


-liberation promised for help during WWII


-post-war tension

Ho Chi Minh

founded in 1941, pushed for Vietnam independence, named after their leader

Sétif

-8 mai 1945, manifestation of nationalists in this algerian town


-france strikes back by killing between 8 and 15 thousand people



Vietnam indépendance

1946-54


-nationalist movements started in 1930’s


-Ho Chi Minh 1941


-Vietnam’s cities declare independence 1945


-Granted liberty 6 mars 1946


-tensions still exist between french/vietnamise





Haiphong

-many french killed in Haiphong Nov 1946


-start to indochine war


-france retaliates by bombing/killing 6,000

Indochine War

starts in 1946


vietnam uses lots of guérilla warfare


-led by general Gaip


french army is organized but too small


-1949, independence given to indochine


-Bao Dai instals anti-communist gov’t



Diên Biên Phu

-confernece held in Geveva to discus indochine


-July 1954


-French instal themselves in Dien Bien Phu


-stay 57 days


-French suffer massive losses


-end of hope for the empire


-USA enters into vietnam war a few years later

conférence de Brazzaville

-Feb 1944


-de Gaulle calls for more humain colonization


-no forced labor, better treatment, etc



De Gaulle and the colonies

-with creation of 5th republic, de gaulle allows african nations to choose independence


-17 countries choose this in 1960



Emacipation of Tunisie et Maroc

1956


-france responds to first waves of nationalism with harsh resistance


-imprison/exile leaders


-Concedes to independence in 1954


-full independence given 1956

la guerre d'Algerie

-1954-1962


-after Sétif, Algerians create FLN (front liberation national)


-November 1 1954 fighting begins


-10 attacks overnight


-people mobilize throughout country to defend their villages


-even women and children


Ends with


-400,000 dead


-1.5 mill. displaced





FLN (Algeria) Leaders

Bitat, Boulaïd, Didouche, Boudiaf, Belkacem, M'Hidi

Jaques Soustelle

-French man sent to lead troops in Algeria 1954



SAS

-service administratif spécialisé


-700 men used to create social change


-also called képis bleus

Harkis

citizen soldiers

Massacres de Constantinois and Philippeville

20-21st Aug 1955


171 french killed by FLN, retaliate by killing 1273 muslims



General Lacoste

-sent in after Soustelle is fired


-given carte blanche



Division of Algeria

-3 zones (interdite, pacification, opération)


-populations are displaced, causing some to flee the country


-france moves on to massive damage


-napalm bombs, mass shooting


-Algerians are kept in massive refuge camps


-poor living conditions, no work



AOS

-society created by de gaulle to ensure equal rights for all people in colonies


-still wants to maintain Algeria as a colony



plan de constantine

negotiations between de gaulle and Ferhat Abbas (FLN elected president of Algeria)


-led to the release of 7,000 FLN prisoners

accords d'Evian

3 July 1962, signed giving Algeria total independence on the 5th



Ahmed Ben Balla

first official president of free Algeria

Discovery of radioactivity

pierre and marie curie 1903 nobel physics


irene curie 1935 nobel chemistry

A. Flemming

discovers pénicilline 1928

W. Rontgen

Discovers radiographie 1895

Bloch and Purcell

Discover IRM 1946

First cars produced

1907

first phones produced

1920

Simone Veil

1975 abortion made legal

Simone de Beauvoir

1949, started women’s movement

1968

students fight for more freedom in 5th republish (massive protests)

Alphonse Mucha

1860-1930, artist

Fauvisme

art movement


Marc Chagall


Matisse



Cubisme

art movement


Picasso


Braques

Surrealisme

art movement


Salvadore Dali


René Magritte

Abstract art

Kandinsky


Pierre Soulages

Important Intellectuals

Marcel Proust


Albert Camus (Nobel Literature 1957)


André Malraux


Jean-Paul Sartre

Political Figures

Léon Blum


Georges Clémenceau


Pétain


De Gaulle


Pompidou (5th repub. president)


Giscard d'Estaing



Founding fathers of construction european

Jean Monnet, Robert Schuman

Origins of WWI

1914 Europe dominates world


-center of trade and industry


-colonies make them politically strong


-their culture dominates the world (religion, science, social)


Europe is also full of tensions


-colonial/economic rivalries


-territory disputes


-nationalism





Inter-european alliances before WWI

Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungry, Italy)


Triple Entente (UK, France, Russia)

28 June 1914

François Ferdinand shot


-28th July Austria Hungry declares war on Serbia


-Causes russia to mobilize


-Causes Germany to declare war on russia


-UK declares war on germany


clusterfuck of alliances=war

la guerre de mouvement (phase 1)

1914


-August= germans enter france via belgum


-General Joffre head of French defense


-December=lines are drawn and movement stops



bataille de la Marne

5-13 Sept 1914


Joffre and Galliéni fight (and win) to save paris from germans

La guerre de position (phase 2)

1915-1917


-fronts do not move


-armies immobilized in trenches


Major Battles


-champagne 1915


-verdun 1916


-somme 1916

le tournant de 1917

-russian revolution causes separate peace of Brest-Litovsk


-Pétain improves life for troops, punishes mutineries


-Clémanceau gives new life to the war


-german submarine warfare causes USA to enter war in April 1917



Allies victory

allies stop german advances in 1918


Foch (allied general) starts planes based counter-offense


11 November 1918 armistice signed at Rethondes, practically all of france is freed



treaty of versailles

signed 28 June 1919, germans declared responsible for war, forced to pay millions in reparations and disarm


new territory lines drawn


Victorious countries did all forming, Germany and Russia not included


Clemenceau veut écraserdéfinitivement l’All. Réclame une lourde indemnité, a des prétentions sur lesrives gauche et droite du Rhin (occupation).


Lloyd George veut conserver une All. forte pour faire écran aucommunisme.


Orlando réclame les terresirrédentes (Trieste et le Trentin), l’Istrie, la Dalmatie. Refus de Wilson,d’où l’idée italienne d’une « victoire mutilée » exploitée plus tardpar d’Annunzio et par les fascistes. Idem pour la Roumanie.


Le Japon obtientles intérêts allemands en Chine. La France retrouvel’Alsace-Lorraine.


la Sarre est placée sous le contrôle de la SDN pour 15 ans et devrase prononcer par référendum pour ou contre son rattachement à l’All. (effectifen 1935). Les houillères de la Sarre sont cédées à la Fr. à titre deréparations.



Empires that disappeared w/ ToV

German, Austrio-Hungrian, Ottoman and Russian

New countries created by ToV

Finlande, Pologne, Etats Baltes, Tchécoslovaquie, Yougoslavie, Hongrie and Autriche

Main signers of ToV

Clemenceau,Lloyd George, Orlando et Wilson


Wilsons 14 Points

droitdes peuples à disposer d’eux-mêmes, abandon de ladiplomatie secrète, liberté des mers, désarmement

Main foundations of UN later on

SDN

société des nations



After effects of war

8 million deaths


16 million injuries (6 million w/ permanent damage)


Widespread PSTD among soldiers and civilians


Women want to continue working


Land and buildings destroyed (economic issues)


-industrial and farm production cut down