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7 Cards in this Set

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Affirming the Consequent

Premise 1: If X, then Y.


Premise 2: Y


——————


Conclusion: Therefore, X

Denying the Antecedent

Premise 1: If X, then Y.


Premise 2: Not X


——————


Conclusion: Therefore, not Y

Broken Chain

Premise 1: If X, then Z.


Premise 2: If Y, then Z.


——————


Conclusion: Therefore, if X, then Y.



Notice that there is no link between the consequent of the first premise and the antecedent of the second premise. As a result, this pattern falls apart—the argument is not valid.

Affirming a disjunct

Premise 1: If X or Y.


Premise 2: X.


——————


Conclusion: Therefore, not Y.



concluded that one disjunct of a logical disjunction must be false because the other disjunct is true; A or B; A; therefore not B.

Denying a Conjunct

Premise 1: Not X and Y.


Premise 2: Not X.


——————


Conclusion: Therefore, Y.



Broken Dilemma

Premise 1: If W then X.


Premise 2: If Y then Z.


Premise 3: X or Z.


——————


Conclusion: Therefore, W or Y.

Illicit Conversion

Premise 1: If X then Y.


——————


Conclusion: Therefore, If Y then X.




Premise 1: If X then Y.


——————


Conclusion: Therefore, If not Y then not X.