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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
silviculture system
=silviculture treatment throughout the life of a stand including regeneration treatments, protection, or cuttings
-heat, temperature, and light quality
who eats seeds?
squirrels, mice, voles, shrews, and insects.
Minimum light requirements for survival
white spruce 12-15%
lodgepole pine 20%
balsam fir 8%
*growth rates differ by light levels
2 regeneration methods
1. uneven aged
2. even aged
regeneration method
=procedure by which a stand is replaced or renewed
benefits of regeneration methods in uneven-aged stands
used to maintain uneven-aged stands, maintain forest cover, provide a continuous flow of fiber
What can be done to deal with temperature problems?
1. select species adapted to local climate
2. break up organic soil layers to increase soil warming
3. leave residual trees for protection
maximum sucker production
soil is 20'C in summer, and is inhibited when soil is below 15'C
regeneration method components
-removal of the old stand
-establishment of the new stand
-treatment of vegetation, slash, or soil for favorable reproduction conditions
=the art and practice of growing forests
vegetative reproduction
1. sprouts
2. suckers
3. cutting
4. layering
5. coppice method
2 types of clearcut
1. natural regeneration (seed, coppice)
2. artificial regeneration (aerial seedling, planting)
stand is removed with regeneration occuring after harvest
2 types:
natural regeneration
artificial regeneration
reenter stands
=have to maintain access
natural shelterwood method
stands that already have established regeneration in the understory
3 steps in shelterwood method
1. prepatory cuttings
2. establishment of seedling cuttings
3. removal cutting
(1 or 2 height or age classes of trees present)
-seed tree
uneven aged
(3+ height or age classes of trees present)
problems of regeneration methods in uneven-aged stands
-expensive, need to frequently reenter stands, operate over large areas, yeild reduced, not well suited for intolerant species
regeneration methods in uneven-aged stands
-single tree selection of group selection
lethal temp. for growth
50'C is lethal
why is clearcutting the method commonly used?
-preferred for intolerant species
factors include:
-moisture and drought
coppice method
-"Low-forest system"
=short forests over short period of time
what is used to improve light availability for seedling growth?
-removal of overtopping vegetation
-vegetation management
regeneration triangle
1. seed supply
2. seedbed
3. environment
*mandatory to have all 3 components
seed tree method
(similiar to clearcut systems)
seedling growth and survival
-mortality can occur during first year of germination, usually in winter b/c of freezing, frost...
sexual reproduction
"High Forest System"
-by seed regeneration
seed supply
= the amount and quality of seed that reaches seedbed conditions
seed production variance
=vairies with tree species, tree age, climate, and site conditions
seed can remain viable inside of cones for several decades, and is released when cones are heated sufficiently high temp. by fire
2 sources of regeneration
1. vegetative reproduction
2. sexual reproduction
most favorable seedbed for germination
-exposed mineral soil free of vegetation cover
viability of seeds in the soil
-lasts for 1 or 2 years
dispersal of tree seed
-influenced by many factors:
1. height seed is released
2. distance from seed source
3. characteristics of seed
4. wind
factors include:
-surface properties
-depth of organic matter
-vegetation cover
-elevated microsites