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135 Cards in this Set

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The branch of science concerned with the adverse effects of drugs and poisons on the human body.
Forensic Toxicology
The application of scientific methods that are used in toxicology for investigative purposes in a medico-legal context.
Ante-Mortem Specimens (Toxicology)
1. Blood (Heart & Femoral)
2. Urine
3. Stomach Contents
4. Liver/bile
5. Lungs
6. Vitreous
Non-biological Samples
1. Liquids
2. Containers
3. Syringes
4. Spoons
5. Tablets
6. Powders
7. Food stuff
Process by which drug proceeds from the site of administration to the site of measurement within the body.
Movement of the drug from the blood to and from the tissues.
Chemical modification of drugs with the overall goal of getting rid of the drug.
Irreversible removal of the parent drugs from the body.
Where is alcohol absorbed?
In the mouth, stomach & intestines.
How much of alcohol is oxidized?
Approximately 95%
How much of alcohol is excreted?
Tissues with a ____ water content will hold more water than tissues with a ____ water content.
Rate of elimination of alcohol is _______ for each person and _______ be changed.
Routes of Drug Administration
1. Injection
2. Topical
3. Respiratory
4. Rectal
5. Oral
Blood Alcohol Concentration
The amount of alcohol present in 100mL volume of blood.
Bite Mark Analysis
Comparing bite mark evidence from crime scene with dental impressions obtained from suspect.
Factors the Affect Bite Marks
1. Active process from interactions
2. Medium, pressure, directionality & time
3. Human skin has elastic properties
What percent of forensic odontologists believe that human dentition is unique?
Common Techniques of Bite Mark Analysis
1. Direct Comparisons
2. Adobe photoshop
Forensic Anthropology
The study of human remains to help reconstruct events surrounding death; primarily focused on skeleton to determine age, gender, race and other conditions.
Human Skeleton
1. 206 bones
2. Bone organization & growth varies with time
3. Varies with gender
Forensic Anthropologists are required when remains are:
1. Fragmented
2. Dismembered
3. Burnt
4. Decomposed
5. Otherwise unidentifiable
Biological Profile for Humans
1. Gender
2. Age at death
3. Racial affinity
4. Height
5. Other class-level information
1. Burial
2. Fire damage
3. Disasters
4. Human rights atrocities
Largest Bone in the Human Body
Sex can be determined by which bone?
Bone Remodeling
A continual modification process that is responsible for the development & erosion of bone tissue.
Paul Kirk
First person in United States to give evidence on blood spatter analysis.
Fluid Dynamics
3D stringing of a pattern used when analyzing impact patterns.
Cast-off Pattern
Clean sprays of blood only happens when you're moving something quickly.
What is blood?
A colloid
What are genes that evolved slower better for?
Species ID
What are genes that evolved faster better for?
Medical doctor who investigates & studies disease in humans.
Forensic Pathologist
A doctor who studies disease & trauma leading to death.
Forensic Pathology
Branch of medicine used for legal purposes & concerned with determining cause of death, examination of injuries due to crime & negligence and examination of tissue samples relevant to crimes.
Manners of Death
1. Homicide
2. Suicide
3. Accidental
4. Natural
Rigor Mortis
1. Stiffening of body after death as muscle membranes become more permeable to Ca2+.
2. Begins 2-6 hours after death.
3. Remains for 2-3 days.
Livor Mortis
1. Settling of blood that is no longer circulating from gravity.
2. Begins about 1 hour after death.
Algor Mortis
Decrease in body temperature after death.
Red or purple spot on the body caused by a minor hemorrhage (broken capillary blood vessels).
What can be used to estimate PMI?
Analyte concentration in the vitreous humor.
Classification of Trauma
1. Mechanical
2. Chemical
3. Thermal
4. Electrical
5. Radiation
6. Blast
Types of Mechanical Trauma
1. Sharp force
2. Blunt force
3. Asphyxia
Types of Thermal Trauma
1. Hypothermia
2. Hyperthermia
PMI Importance
Estimating PMI within an accurate time is important to the field of forensics.
Methods Used to Estimate Time Since Death
1. Temperature
2. Rigor Mortis
3. Entomology
Vitreous Humor Disadvantages
1. Environmental change
2. Ante mortem conditions
3. Time since death
4. Duration of terminal phase
5. Drug overdose/chronic illness usually have variable [K+] levels
6. Burn injuries result in higher [K+] levels than expected
Analysis Software
1. EnCode Software
2. Forensic Toolkit
Files can be:
Contiguous or non-contiguous
Single Cluster
8 Sectors (4096 Bytes)
File Data
2248 Bytes
RAM Slack
312 Bytes
Cluster Slack
1536 Bytes
Issues with Modern Computer Forensics
1. Large amount of data makes it difficult to get through all of it
2. Encryption
3. Cloud Storage
Biological Crime
Individuals or small group non-political and non-warfare driven.
Biological Terrorism
Terrorists groups may be nation supported.
Biological Warfare
Nation warfare, acts of war
Bio Crime
1. Considered same as traditional crimes
2. Directed at individuals
3. Weapon is biological agent
Bio Terrorism
1. Deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other germs intending to cause illness or harm
2. Agents could be natural or modified
Motives for Bio Crime & Bio Terrorism
1. Terrorize
2. Implement mass murder
3. Incapacitate
4. Make a political statement
5. Make an anti-agricultural statement
6. Extortion, disruption, revenge
Biological Agents
1. Pathogens
2. Toxins
Natural microorganisms that cause disease.
Poisonous chemicals produced by a living organism.
Types of Pathogens
1. Viruses
2. Bacteria
3. Fungi
4. Protists
5. Parasites
Reasons Why Biological Agents Are Used
1. Easy to obtain
2. Inexpensive to purchase, store, transport
3. Difficult to detect
4. Effect not immediate, attacker harder to detect
5. Spread through air, water, food or humans
6. Some spread from human to human, others don't
Modes of Dissemination
1. Food Contamination
2. Water Contamination
3. Direct Application
What has no direct threat to human health?
Plant pathogens
Microbial Forensics
Scientific discipline dedicated to analyzing evidence from a bio terrorism act, bio crime or inadvertent microorganism or toxin release.
Components of Microbial Forensics
1. Detection & Identification
2. Information & Databases
3. Stain repository
4. New validated analytic methods
5. Quality assurance guidelines
Ontario Game Protective Act
Passed in 1982
Conservation Officers
1. Enforce 24 different Acts & Legislation
2. Lay about 8,000 charge annually
3. Have specialized units
4. Help the public understand their rights & privileges
5. Educate the public
MNR Law Enforcements
1. Fisheries
2. Wildlife
3. Crown Lands
4. Lakes & rivers
5. Forestry
6. Fires
7. Provincial Parks
8. Endangered Species
Stable Isotopes
1. Hydrogen
2. Carbon
3. Nitrogen
4. Oxygen
5. Lead
6. Scrontium
Isotopically Light
1. More negative
2. Depleted
Isotopically Heavy
1. More positive
2. Enriched
Turnover Rates: Static Tissues (Hair)
1 cm per month
Turnover Rates: Static Tissues (Nails)
3-6 months
Turnover Rates: Static Tissues (Muscle)
Turnover Rates: Static Tissues (RBC's)
Turnover Rates: Static Tissues (Plasma)
Turnover Rates: Static Tissues (Bone)
Forensic Application
1. Alcohol
2. Tracking drug sources
3. Determining the provenance of dead bodies
Determining the Provenance of Dead Bodies
1. Hair - Present within a few months
2. Skull & teeth - Present in decades
3. Nails - Present within months
4. Femur - Present within a few years
Causes of Fires
1. Accidental
2. Arson
Types of Accidental Fire Causes
1. Faulty wiring
2. Overheated electrical motors
3. Improperly maintained heating systems
4. Cigarette smoking
Used for Arson
1. Chemical accelerants
2. Non-chemical causes
Spontaneous Combustion
Natural heat producing process ignites a fire in a poorly ventilated area.
Fire is a type of what?
To initiate & sustain a fire requires:
1. Fuel (vapor)
2. Sufficient oxygen to combine with fuel
3. Heat to initiate combustion
4. Sufficient heat
Locating Fire Origin
1. Fire moves up
2. Streamers
3. Lower burning liquids flow down
4. Accelerant search
Substances that undergo a rapid oxidation reaction with the production of large quantities of gas.
Forensic Examination of Hair
Partial success in individuality has been achieved by isolating & characterizing the DNA present in hair.
3 Layers the Shaft of Hair is Composed of
1. Cuticle
2. Cortex
3. Medulla
Scale structure covering exterior of hair.
Three Basic Patterns of the Cuticle
1. Cornal
2. Spinous
3. Imbricate
Main body of hair shaft.
Facts About Cortex
1. Embedded with pigment granules to give hair its color.
2. Color, shape & distribution of granules provide points for individualization.
Cellular column running through center of hair.
Medullary Index
Measures diameter of medulla relative to hair shaft.
Medullary Index for Humans
Less than one-third
Medullary Index for Animals
One-half or greater
Four Classifications of Medullae
1. Continuous
2. Interrupted
3. Fragmented
4. Absent
Classification for Humans
No medullae or fragmented
Classification for Mongoloid Race
Continuous medullae
Classification for Animals
Continuous or interrupted
Classification for Cats
Resembles a string of pearls
Three phases of hair growth in the root
1. Anagen
2. Catagen
3. Telogen
Follicular Tag
Translucent piece of tissue surrounding hair's shaft near root that contains richest source of DNA associated with hair.
Important Factors in Identification & Comparison of Hair
1. Medullary Index
2. Medullary Shape
3. Scale Structure
Factors in Comparison of Hair
1. Color
2. Length
3. Diameter
4. Presence/Absence of medulla
5. Distribution, shape, color & intensity of pigment granules
There is a higher success rate in extracting DNA from hair roots in which phase?
Anagen Phase
Sampling of Head Hair
50 full-length hairs
Sampling of Pubic Hair
24 full-length hairs
Types of FIbers
1. Natural
2. Manufactured
3. Regenerated
4. Synthetic
Natural Fibers
Wholly derived from animal or plant sources.
Manufactured Fibers
Derived from natural or synthetic polymers.
Regenerated Fibers
Manufactured from natural raw materials.
Examples of Regenerated Fibers
1. Rayon
2. Acetate
3. Triacetate
Synthetic Fibers
Produced from synthetic chemicals.
Examples of Synthetic Fibers
1. Nylons (1st synthetic fiber)
2. Polyesters
3. Acrylics
Computer Forensics
Involves preservation, acquisition, extraction & interpretation of computer data.
Devices Capable of Storing Electronic Data
1. Cellphones
2. PDA's
3. iPads
4. Digital Cameras
5. Flash Memory Cards
6. Smart Cards
7. Jump Drives
Physical components of a computer.
Examples of Hardware
1. Case
2. Keyboard
3. Motherboard
4. Monitor
5. RAM
6. HDD
7. Mouse
Set of instructions compiled into a program that performs a particular task.
Examples of Software
1. Operating Systems
2. Word-processing Programs
3. Web-browing Applications
4. Accountig Applications
Live Computer Acquisition Steps
1. Photograph all relevant sections of the screen
2. Acquire contents of RAM
3. Copying & pasting relevant infromation into a new text document & saving it
Most Popular Software Forensics Tools
1. EnCase
2. Forensic Toolkit (FTK)
3. Forensic Autopsy
Visible Data
All data that the operating system is presently aware of & thus is readily accessible to the user.
Latent Data
Areas of files & disks that are typically not apparent to the computer user but contain data nonetheless.
Three Things That Can Be Used To Determine Where A Person Has Been On The Internet
1. Internet Cache
2. Cookies
3. Internet History
IP Address
Internet Protocol Address
Performing an unauthorized computer or network intrusion.
Hardware or software designed to protect intrusions into an Internet network.