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106 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
describe abundance of formed elements
Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas:
what are the agranulocytes?
lymphocytes and monocytes
what are the granulocytes?
neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils
structure/function relationship of erythrocytes
-biconcave because a lot of surface area
-smaller distance to surface so easier and quicker for simple diffusion
-specrin makes flexible to slide through tight spots
site of production/common stem cell of formed elements
occurs in the red bone marrow
-hemocytoblast is the common stem cell of formed elements
hormonal regulation of erythropoiesis
controlled by erythropoietin (EPO)
state the order of the stages of hemostasis
vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation (fibrin formation)
describe what happens during vascular spasm stage of hemostasis
-direct injury to vascular smooth muscle
-chemical released by endothelial cells and platelets and reflexes initiated by local pain receptors
describe what happens during the platelet plug formation stage of hemostasis
-enhances platelet stickiness to collagen
-platelets release serotonin, ADP and Thromboxane
-this attracts more platelets to site, positive feedback)
describe what happens during the coagulation (fibrin formation) stage of hemostasis
-prothrombin activator formed
-prothrombin activator converts prothrombin protein into thrombin
-thrombin catalyzes joining of fibrinogen molecules into a fibrin mesh
describe the elements in blood involved in blood typing including the definitions of agglutinins and agglutinogens; describe what makes a person type A, B, AB, or O and Rh+
ABO is based on presence of inherited agglutinogens type A and B
-agglutinegen is a glycoprotein antigen on the surface of the RBC and agglutinin is an antibody
-type A, B, AB and O have B, A, none and A and B antibodies
-Rh+ carries the Rh antigen
the components of the pericardium and the layers of the heart wall
-parietal: outside
-visceral layer/myocardium/endocardium: inside
types of heart valves and roles of each
-AV valves: R=tricuspid, L=bicuspid/mitral
-semilunar valve: R=pulmonary and L=aortic
explain the roles of the pulmonary and systemic circuits
-pulmonary circuits: served by the right side pump and goes only to the lungs
-systemic circuits: served by the left side pump and goes to whole body
describe the pathway of blood through the heart
superior/inferior vena cava -- r. atrium -- tricuspid valve -- r. ventricle -- pulmonary semilunar valve -- pulmonary truck -- lungs -- l/r pulmonary veins -- L atrium -- mitral/bicuspid valve -- L ventricle -- aortic semilunar valve -- aorta
describe the conduction system of the heart
coordinates and synchronizes heart activity and forces heart to contract in units
describe the pathway of the conduction system of the heart
SA node, AV node, bundle of His, bundle branches and purkinje fibers
what does the SA node do?
sets heart rate
describe the AV node
impulse delayed .1 second, allows atria to finish contraction before ventricles contract
describe the bundle of His, bundle branches
the only electrical connection between atria and ventricle
define and compare systole and diastole
systole: contraction period of heart
diastole: relaxation period of heart
ECG: describe what happens in the cycle to produce the P, QRS and T waves
P wave: ventricular filling (ventricular filling and atrial contraction)
QRS wave: isovolumetric contraction
T wave: ventricular ejection phase
heart sound production and timing
lub = close AV valves, beginning of systole
dub = close of semilunar valves, beginning of ventricular diastole
chamber blood flow and relative pressure; ventricular blood volume
pressures lower in the ventricles when the blood flow moves to the aorta and pulmonary circuits
define cardiac output
heart rate x stroke volume
describe heart rate
describe stroke volume
volume/beat pumped by ventricle with each beat
EDV = ....
end diastolic volume...determined by length of ventricular diastole and venous pressure
ESV = ...
end systolic volume...determined by arterial blood pressure and the force of ventricular contraction
contractile strength achieved at a given muscle length
sympathetic nervous system level
through epinephrine and norepinephrin binding to b-1 adrenergic receptors to increase HR
parasympathetic nervous system level
acetylcholine opens potassium channels, HR decreases and dominant
define congestive heart failure
cardiac output is so low that blood circulation is inadequate to meet tissue needs
describe the tunics of a typical bllod vessel
tunica interna, tunica media and tunica externa
tunica media...
circularly arranged smooth muscle and elastin...vasoconstriction and vasodilation
tunica externa...
loosely woven collagen
elastic arteries...
large diameter lumen and aorta and its major branch
muscular arteries
deliver blood to organs and proportionately, the thickest media
smallest of arteries largest have all three tunics and blood flow into capillaries determined by arteriole diameter
how precapillary sphincters can control blood flow
rerouting controlled by vasomotor nerve fibers, local chemical condition
describe continuous capillaries
most common, intercellular clefts not present in brain capillaries
describe fenestrated capillaries
active capillary absorption of filtrate formation, small intestine, kidneys
describe sinusoidal capillaries
highly modified, leaky, large molecules, blood cells pass, liver, bone marrow, lymphoid tissues and some endocrine organs
describe flow..
volume of blood flowing through a vessel, organ or entire circulation in a given period
describe blood pressure..
force per unit area exerted on the blood vessel wall by its contained blood, usually means systemic arterial pressure in largest arteries, pressure gradient drives blood movement
describe resistance...
friction or opposition to flow, mostly occurs away from heart, peripheral resistance
define arterial blood pressure
how much the elastic arteries close to the heart can be stretched and the volume of blood forced into them at any time
what is normal systolic blood pressure?
120 mm Hg
what is normal diastolic blood pressure
80 mm Hg
describe mean arterial pressure..
diastolic + pulse pressure / 3
pulse pressure is...
difference between systolic and diastolic pressures
describe what happens to blood pressure trough the systemic circuit
highest in the aorta, declines to lowers at right atrium, arterial blood pressure pulsatile
what is MAP =
stroke volume x heart rate x TPR
describe the short baroreceptors
increased blood pressure stretches, sends signal to inhibit vasomotor center
explain redistribution of blood flow that occurs during exercise
respiratory pump = breathing causes pressure changes in ventral body cavity
muscular pump = 1* mechanism
venous smooth muscle constriction under sympathetic control
explain how hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure gradients work at the capillary level to end up with a net filtration pressure
net fluid pressure = H"capillary - HP interstitial fluid) - (OPcapillary - OPinterstitial fluid)
compare and contrast the characteristics of lymphatic capillaries and blood capillaries
-lymphatic capillaries: weave between the tissue cells and blood capillaries in the loose connective tissues of the body; they are remarkably permeable that they were once thought to be open at one end like a straw
define lymph
once interstitial fluid enters the lymphatic system
list the lymphoid organs and describe the role of the thymus
tonsils, thymust, spleen, peyer's patches, appendix
-thymus: prepares T lymphocytes to do battle
-Blood-Thymus barrier secret thymosin and thymopoietin
describe innate immunity
nonspecific: 1st line of defense (external body membranes)
-2nd line of defense (antimicrobial protein, phagocytes, and other cells to inhibit the invaders' spread throughout the body; inflammation)
describe adaptive immunity
specific: 3rd line of defense (attacks with particular foreign substances)
describe the general steps in phagocytosis
-adherence by "recognizing" microbe's sugar coat, phagocyte engulfs, phagocytic vesicle fuses with a lysosome, microbe in fused vesicle killed and digested and residual material removed by exocytosis
describe the cardinal signs of inflammation (redness, heat, swelling, pain) and generally state what causes each of the signs
-redness: increased RBC
-heat: warmth from the blood
-swelling: increase of WBC
-pain: swelling and release of chemical mediators
describe the process of phagocyte mobilization that occurs during inflammation
leukocytosis, margination, diapedesis, chemotaxis
define the phrase antigenic determinants
antibodies bind to antigenic determinants on the antigen surface. most antigens have several different antigenic determinants, which means that different antibodies can bind to a give antigen
a distinction in the roles of B-cells and T cells in each type of response
-B cells: produces antibodies to antigen
-T cells: helper cells
whether or not the system recognizes free antigens
humoral: B cells: yes
cell mediated: T cells: no
describe primary and secondary response as it relates to humoral immunity that includes a definition of memory
-memory B cells provide immunological memory
-secondary immune response faster, more prolonged, more effective
definition of the phrase autoimmune disease
the immune system loses its ability to distinguish friend from foe
briefly describe the 4 essential process that must happen for the respiratory system to accomplish respiration
1. pulmonary ventilation = initial sweeping in of air
2. external respiration = exchange of gases at level of lungs
3. transport of gases = circulatory system take oxygen
4. internal respiration = exchange of gases at level of capillaries
what is the conducting zone?
conduit for air, cleanse, humidify, warm = primary, secondary, tertiary bronchi/bronchioles
what is the respiratory zone
gas exchange = respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli
describe the respiratory membrane including a description of each component
formed by alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basal laminas (air-blood barrier). gas exchange by simple diffusion. each alveoli connected to each of the surrounding alveoli by a porous connection
define tidal volume
average amount of air inhaled or exhaled under resting conditions = 500 mL
describe vital capacity
max amoutnt of air that can be exhaled after a maximal inspiration = 4800 mL
residual volume
air remaining in lungs after forced exhale = 1200 mL
describe dead space
volume that doesn't participate in gas exchange in the alveoli 150 mL
describe spirometer
evaluate losses in function; differentiates b/w obstructive and restrictive lung diseases
boyle's law
pressure and volume inversely related PV = PV
dalton's law
total pressure equals the sum of all independent pressure
henry's law
gas will dissolve in liquid according to its partial pressure
describe fentilation-perfusion coupling
influences gas exchange across respiratory membrane: if ventilation is inadequate then arterioles constrict and redirect blood to area where partial Oxygen levels is higher or if carbon dioxide is higher in passageways than dilate to eliminate carbond dioxide rapidly (occurs in alveoli in lungs)
describe how oxygen is carried in blood including a description of the role of hemoglobin in this process...
oxygen is carried by hemoglobin (98.5%) (4 at a time) 25% of oxygen unloaded to tissues
explain the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve and describe the changes that can occur to it when there are changes in environmental pH, CO2 and temperature...
dissociation curve...always shifts to right to promote unloading of oxygen. factors that aid in unloading: high temp, high CO2 and high hydrogen Ion levels (drop in pH)
describe the different ways in which carbon dioxide can be carried in the blood
CO2 carried in blood by...
1. dissolved in plasma
2. bound to hemoglobin (different binding sites that oxygen)
3. bicarbonate: most is carried this way
explain the reaction what produces bicarbonate including an explanation of how the chloride shift contributes to the process and when the reaction may move to the right or left (lungs vs systemic tissues)
carbonic anhydrase forms bicarbonate!
-there's a chloride shift at tissues: left to right in tissues; and right to left in lungs
describe how the medulla controls respiratory rate and include the role of pCO2 in those control mechanisms; describe when hyperventilation is triggered...
medulla controls respiratory rate by pacesetting the respiratory center and activating muscles of forced expiration
1. pCO = most powerful respiratory stimulant
2. increase CO triggers hyperventilation
3. hypercapnia (increased pCO in blood) = drop in pH
4. hypoxia = inadequate oxygen delivery to tissues
identify and describe the anatomical organs contributing to digestion
alimentary canal: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
accessory galnds: teeth, tongue, gallbladder, salivary glands, liver and pancreas: secretions aid to breakdown of food
describe layers of the alimentary canal
1. mucosa: secretes digestive enzymes, hormones, absorbs end products of digestion into the blood and protects against infectious disease: simple columnar epithelium
2. submucosa: dense connective tissue containing blood and lymphatic vessels, lymphoid follicles and nerve fibers. allows stomach to regain shape
3. muscularis externa: function is segmentation and peristalsis: it has an inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer
4. serosa, the protective outermost layer made of areolar connective tissue: adventitia in the esophagus
briefly describe the 6 major digestive processes
1: ingestion: eating food
2. propulsion: swallowing/peristalsis
3. mechanical digestion: physically prepares food for chemical digestion by enzymes. includes chewin, missing with saliva, segmentation (rhythmic constriction of the intestine)
4. chemical digestioin: series of catabolic steps in which complex food molecules are brokend down into their chemical building blocks
5. absorption: the passage of digested end products from the lumen of the GI tract through the mucosal cells by active or passive transport into the blood or lymph (small intestine is the main absorptive site
6. defecation: eliminates indigestible substances from the body via the anus in the form of feces
describe peristalsis
the major means of propulsion, involves alternate waves of contraction and relaxation of muscles in the organ walls
describe segmentation
rhythmic constrictions of the intestine, mixing with digestive juices
define deglutition
describe and state the role of the rugae of the stomach
folds created when stomach is empty
describe the role of the gastric glands
produce gastric juices
describe the role of mucous neck cells
acidic mucus
what do parietal cells secrete?
what do chief cells secrete?
pepsinogen (HCL + pepsinogen = pepsin)
what does exocrine pancreas secrete?
releases pancreatic juic
define role of liver
produce bile to emulsify fat: blood sent through to drop off nutrients before it goes back to the heart
describe the role of the gall bladder
stores bile; causes contraction and release of bile form gall bladder
describe the role of gastrin in digestion
gastrin produces in the stomach mucosa, stimulated by food in the stomach and acetylcholine, released by nerve fibers. it targets the stomach to cause gastric galnds to increase secretory activity; most pronounced effect is on HCL secretion and stimulates gastric emptying. it targets the small intestine to stimulate contraction of the intestinal muscle. it targets the ileocecal valve to relax. it stimulates the large intestine to make mass movements
describe the role of CCK in digestion
produced in the duodenal mucosa, stimulated by fatty chyme and partially digested proteins. it targets the liver.pancreas to potentiate secretin's actions on these organs. it targets the pancreas to increase output of enzyme rich pancreatic juice. it targets the gallbladder to contract and expel stored bile. it targets the hepatopancreatic sphincter to trelax and allow entry of bile and pancreatic juice into duodenum
describe the role of secretin in digestion
secretin is produced by the duodenal mucosa and is stimulated by acidic chyme. it targets the stomach to inhibit gastric gland secretion and gastric motility during gastric phase of secretion it targets the pancreas to increases output of pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonate ions; potentiates CCKs action. it targets the liver to increase bile output
describe the structural adaptations of small intestine for absorption
1. circular folds = makes chyme wind back and forth and allows time for absorption
2. villi = simple comlumnar epithelium line (chyme moves through it
3. microvilli = brush border (breaks down to simplest form
describe the role of secondary active transport in absorption
sodium potassium pump on lower basilic border keeps gradient low (go outside of columnar epithelium cell most likely into blood) sodium transporters on upper apical border (microvilli) allow sodium and amino acids to come in...all but lipids are coupled with sodium to get from lumen to inside: FREE RIDER