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118 Cards in this Set

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John Singleton Copley

Born 1738 - died 1815


worked in several styles


America's 1st master painter


from limner to master painter


reflective surfaces


photo like quality

Rococo

1750-1776 (style term for only decorative arts and painting) is the age of very conspicuous consumption in colonial America. Combination of Rocaille and Barroco

Mary & Elizabeth Royall


J.S. Copley 1758


can paint fabric especially satin


animals are in again (humming bird)


partial landscape


some scale issues (M hand on E shoulder)


daughters of Isaac Royall rich rum merchant


Titian Red as the public wanted

Mature American Copley

1760-1774


dark setting


focused light source


named for J.S. Copley creating it

Mrs.Ezekiel Goldthwait

J.S. Copley 1770-1771


Mature American Copley 1760-1774


reflective surface table top


light source from left


darkness around


50" X 40" = standard Copley size


96 1-3 hour poses

HenryPelham (Boy with a Squirrel)

J.S. Copley 1765


Mature American Copley 1760-1774


Titian red drapery


reflective surface


light source left


squirrel on chain


Copley's half brother

BenjaminWest
1738-1820 American Expatriot artist who moved to london painted big canvases such as death on a pale horse and christ rejected
PaulRevere

J.S. Copley 1768


Mature American Copley 1760-1774


reflective table top


PR working on a sliver teapot


PR thinking


light source in front of PR

BostonTea Party
December16, 1773

Colpey father in law's tea destroyed

SamuelAdams

J.S. Copley 1770-1772


Mature American Copley 1760-1774


Titian Red coat


pointing to plans


Copley knows the business

Mr.and Mrs. Thomas Mifflin

J.S. Copley 1773


Mature American Copley 1760-1774


1st Gov of PA after revolution


showed wealth via fringe


Mifs from Philly went to Boston


wife most prominent = more detail= more time

CopleyFamily

J.S. Copley 1776




Copley on left= Smibert in bermuda group


Nature scene in back


much fabric


father in law


happy family

NEOCLASSICISM

1176-1865


America gainsindependence and models the country’s new government on the ancient democraciesof Rome and Greece. The classical tradition had been percolating for a while;it helps the new nation (United States) define itself.

Pompeii

August 24, 79 CE

its rediscovery begins by the mid-18th century and is a significant influence on art by the late 18th century and well into the nineteenth century

Agrippina Landing at Brundisium with the Ashes of Germanicus


Benjamin West 1768


Neoclassicism 1776-1865


Looks like Virgin Mary / holding husband ashes


Ag = model of stoic virtue


Ancient Roman subject from Roman History


source material = monument of peace VM

Ariadne Asleep on the Island of Naxos

J. Vanderlyn 1809-1814


Neoclassicism 1776-1865


nude NOT naked no body hair


father was Minos


legend of the Minotaur / Titian Red


left here by Thesius who is escaping via boat


drugged and looking away


US did not like the nude

Nude V Naked

Nude = the ideal "beautiful" body without clothing




Naked = looks better with clothes on

Venus Rising from the Sea (After the Bath)

Raphaelle Peale, 1822


Neoclassicism 1776-1865


Trompe L' Oeil (Tromp Loy)


cloth was thought to be in front of painting


dainty foot / long dainty arm



Trompe L' Oeil (Tromp Loy)

Fool the EYE




Very accurate details


Controlled brush strokes


Scale is accurate


Physiology happens

George Washington

H. Greenough, 1840

Neoclassicism 1776-1865


1st Fed Gov commissioned statue


Meant to honor GW not mock him / larger than life


Head=realism neck down idealized Zeus/Jupiter


reliefs on sides = Apollo on chariot


main issue is shirtless / strong sculpture

The Greek Slave

H. Powers, 1843

Neoclassicism 1776-1865


contrapposto stance


1st London then US / sep viewing hours m/f


Nude is ok because there is a reason for nude


5'5" = life size / cross on necklace by hand


chained to post / had fictional biography


resembles Aphrodite

contrapposto

counterpoise the stance of many sculptures


weight shifted to one side


1 straight leg other is bent


introduced by Greeks in 400s


Egyptians do not use


CPP = way to do standing figures

Heriam Powers

US born studied in Florence Italy


The Greek Slave 1843

Hermes

Praxiteles

ancient Greek sculpture of the 4th C. BCE

California

H. Powers, 1850-55

Neoclassicism 1776-1865


personification of CA gold rush


Aster Family purchased gave to MET

The White Captive

Erastus D. Palmer, 1857

Neoclassicism 1776-1865


Nude ok due to being captive


head is turned to side to show shame


In MET

Nydia, the Blind Girl of Pompeii

R. Rogers, 1853

Neoclassicism 1776-1865


Blind = eyes are closed


hard of hearing = hand to ear


physical handicap = stick/cane


breast exposed ok since running from volcano


last survivor of Pompeii / just missed by falling debris

Forever Free,

E. Lewis, 1867

Neoclassicism 1776-1865


is at Howard University in DC

Romanticism

1776-1865

Death of Wolfe

B. West, , 1770

Romanticism 1776-1865


general dying in battlefield


NA watching the event


British flag being held up

Watson and the Shark

J. S. Copley, , 1778

Romanticism 1776-1865



Death and Disaster Series

Andy Warhol


1963 - 1968


Double Jackie / Electric Chair / Green Car Crash


stopped due to near death experience

Electric Chair


Andy Warhol 1963-1968


Death and Disaster Series


photo


Romantic style 1776-1865


sing sing in new york



Green Car Crash


Andy Warhol 1963-1958


Death and disaster series


photo


Romantic Style 1776-1865


did a lot of accidents this one is firey



Double Jackie


Andy Warhol 1963 - 1968


Death and Disaster series


photo


Romantic style 1776-1865

Death on a Pale Horse

B. West, 1817

Romantic 1776-1865


expatriot who painted in london


uses sublime messaging


HUGE 25' W x 14'8" T

sublime

deep intense emotions that bring you closer to GOD

The Dead Man Restored to Life by Touching the Bones of the Prophet Elisha

W. Allston. 1811 - 1814


Romanticism 1776-1865


old testament / book of kings


13' x 10' very narrative image


shock, people held back by guard

Moonlit Landscape

W. Allston, 1819

romanticism 1776-1865


loosely based on experiences on his journey to US


water reflects light at night


extreme details in the clouds


almost Claudian Mode


flooded by light from full moon

Hudson River School

1820-1865


this directly comes under the bigger umbrella of the Romantic aesthetic but focuses on the American interest in landscape where the same qualities in Romantic history pictures could also be found.


Uses Claudian Mode A LOT


not an actual school or building but a collective group

A. Fisher

one of the first to visit Niagara Falls to sketch on site

Niagara

F. C. Church, 1857

Romanticism / Hudson River School 1820-1865


7'6" W x 5'6" H


no tourist in painting


rainbow brings in GOD/sublime


#1 family destination at the time

Manifest Destiny

Belief US has the divine right to gain land from Atlantic to Pacific oceans and from the Great Lakes to the Rio Grande (and even beyond)

R. W. Emerson “Nature,” 1836--
Ralph Waldo Emerson’s slim book Nature represents one of the founding texts of American transcendentalism. Frustrated with the fusty bookishness of his contemporaries, Emerson (1803-1882) retreated to the woods to experience poetry, philosophy, and religion first hand.


Transcendentalism
an idealistic philosophical and social movement that developed in New England around 1836 in reaction to rationalism. Influenced by romanticism, Platonism, and Kantian philosophy, it taught that divinity pervades all nature and humanity, and its members held progressive views on feminism and communal living. Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau were central figures.

View from Mount Holyoke,

T. Cole, , 1836

Romanticism / HRS 1820-1865


Northampton, MA after a Thunderstorm


Preserve nature / interstate now goes through


put himself into painting in natural nature


sketched there but painted in studio


natural landscape vs human changed








Claudian Mode

Claude Lorrain specialized in landscape


Trees framing at least 1 side


centrally placed body of water


distant mountains


small scale figures in fore ground


darker foreground vs back light filled


peaceful and tranquility


used by Hudson River School artists

Kindred Spirits

Asher B. Durand, 1849

Romanticism / HRS 1820-1865


our book cover / homage to Cole


Claudian Mode


3 trees on left = holy trinity


flying bird may be Cole's spirit


Sublime messaging / outdoor cathedral

Blue Hole, Little Miami River

R. Duncanson, 1851

Romanticism / HRS 1820-1865


Claudian Mode


abolitionist movement


emphasizes fishing artist like fishing


other side of Appalachian mounts


reflective water

Autumn--On the Hudson River

J. S. Cropsey, 1860

Romanticism / HRS 1820-1865


2nd generation HRS


used tubes of paint = more vibrant colors


received poorly by queen though fake


artist sent autumn leaves to prove colors

The Heart of the Andes

F. Church, 1859

Romanticism / HRS 1820-1865


Claudian Mode / Church made 2 trips to South America


brought God in with a shrine on left side


carved his name in tree as signature


displayed with potted palm trees and heat to give it the sense of being in the tropics

Alexander von Humboldt, Kosmos, 1845-1862

Book / "most significant respect for mother nature is to paint her" Vol 2 Kosmos


Mark Twain's brain was gasping and reeling while reading this book

Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species by the Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (1859)

book / evolutionary theory


nature = place of competition


"Taking God out of Nature was not his intent"


went to Gallopogos island

Cotopaxi

F. Church, 1862

Romanticism / HRS 1820-1865 Claudian Mode


during civil war = US erupting


perfect painting at perfect time


Church climbed Cotopaxi but it did not erupt


was Highest peak of Andes in Quito, Ecuador



Twilight in the Wilderness

F. Church, 1860

Romanticism / HRS 1820-1865


Claudian Mode



Olana

C. Vaux and F. Church, 1870-72; 1888-89

Romantic Style


irregular roof line / mideval like / lack of symetry


bank of Hudson River


painting studio added in 1880s on back side


"about 1 hour from Albany is the center of the world and I own it"

The Rocky Mountains, Lander’s Peak

Albert Bierstadt, 1863

Romanticism / HRS 1820-1865


Claudian mode


reflective water / bear skinning in foreground


brought HRS to the West


possibly Alps or Himalayas but actually Rockies

Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, CA,

Albert Bierstadt, 1868

Romanticism / HRS 1820-1865


Claudian Mode


"he thought he found garden of eden"


herd of deer shows it is US


reflective water



Yellowstone National Park

1872 - 1st land put under federal protection due to HRS artists pushing for saving land

Romantic landscape design

Garden Cementaries 1776-1865 = Mt Auburn, Laurel Hill, Greenwood planned to look unplanned


Central Park 1853-1876


Earthworks late 60s-present =Spiral Jetty & Running Fence

Central Park


F.L. Olmstead and C. Vaux 1853-1876


to give residents of the city a place to feel not like they are in a city without having to go to a garden cemetery or out of the city. rocks were left to seem unplanned

Spiral Jetty

R. Smithson, 1969-70

Earthwork late 1960s-present


on great salt lake / 1500' long 20' wide


6650 tons of stone


has disappeared and reappeared due to water level

Running Fence

Christo and Jeanne-Claude, 1972-76

Earthwork late 1960s-present


all materials were given to the land owners


only up for 14 days took 4 years


24.5 miles 2 counties in California


59 ranches and 14 roads


work should be finite / ended in pacific ocean

New York Earth Room

W. DeMaria, 1977

Voyage of Life

T. Cole, 1842 w/ replica 1838-1840

4 paintings birth/youth/adult/death


youth is most sought after



Luminism

1850-1875


Transcendentalism


R. W. Emerson "Nature," 1836


is an American landscape painting style of the 1850s – 1870s, characterized by effects of light in landscapes, through using aerial perspective, and concealing visible brushstrokes.

Beacon Rock, Newport Harbor

J. F. Kensett, 1857

Luminism 1850-1875



Shrewsbury River

J.F. Kensett, 1859

Luminism 1850-1875

Owl’s Head, Penobscot Bay

F. H. Lane, 1862

Luminism 1850-1875

Brace’s Rock

F. H. Lane, 1864

Luminism 1850-1875

Impressionism / Impressionist

a style or movement in painting originating in France in the 1860s, characterized by a concern with depicting the visual impression of the moment, especially in terms of the shifting effect of light and color.a literary or artistic style that seeks to capture a feeling or experience rather than to achieve accurate depiction


Major is Claude Monet / Impressionist was a slight that the artists used as a positive.

Thunder Storm on Narragansett Bay

M. J. Heade, 1868

Luminism 1850-1875

Romanticism / Genre

1776-1865


Genre –subject matter not a style; it appears in 19th-century America as an aspect of pure Romanticism



The Truant Gamblers

W. S. Mount, 1835

Romanticism / Genre 1776-1865


popular with middle class


tells a story

“Happy Birthday, Miss Jones,”

Norman Rockwell 1956


Romanticism / Genre 1776 - 1865


US most popular illustrator-genre artist

The Painter’s Triumph

W.S. Mount, 1838

Romanticism / Genre


man with whip staring at unknown masterpiece


other works facing other way

The Power of Music

W.S. Mount, 1847

Romanticism / Genre 1776-1865


white men singing / black man should be working


stereo types, bottle on ground and not working

Eel Spearing at Setauket

W. S. Mount, 1845

Romanticism / Genre 1776-1865


eastern long island


very luministic but still Romantic in style

Fur Traders Descending the Missouri

G. C. Bingham, 1845

Romanticism / Genre 1776-1865


paralled with Mark Twain's details of Missouri and Mississippi rivers


black furry thing maybe a cat?

Slave Auction

J. Rogers, 1859

Romanticism / Genre


Not well liked due to the topic


molded plaster that is beige or gray in color to look like cut stone



Checkers Up at the Farm

J. Rogers, 1875

Romanticism / Genre 1776-1865


most popular piece


farm owner with a worker


worker won

Neoclassic

1776-1865


architecture during romanticism time

Virginia State Capitol

T. Jefferson, 1785-89

Neoclassic 1776-1865


1st neoclassical building in US


TJ designed while in France


based Roman temple in France Maison Carree


portico with ionic columns

Columns

Doric=most basic pure from, no base Greek


Ionic=Scrolls on top base on bottom


Corinthian=Leaves on top wide base ROMAN


(Romans are Greek wannabes)

Maison Carree in Nimes, France

VA State Capitol is based off

Massachusetts State House

C. Bulfinch, 1795-98

Neoclassic1776-1865


land was owned by Copley


Cheers Bar was originally Bull & Finch


vocal point is dome


Corinthian columns / round archways / ent stairs

Monticello

T. Jefferson, 1769-84; 1796-1809

Neoclassic 1776-1865


little mountain in Italian Gibbsian & Paladian mix


Jefferson's country home


the dependency houses are hidden into the landscape

University of Virginia

T. Jefferson, 1817-25

Neoclassic 1776-1865


based off Patheon


3 need for learning 1-high air quality,2-students and faculty live together, 3-all building modeled from Roman Architectecture


1825 first class 1828 1st degree TJ 1826

Pantheon - the most influencial building in art history

in Rome


When F.L. Wright designed the Guggenheim Museum, he called it “my Pantheon.”

The White House

J. Hoban and B. H. Latrobe, c. 1795

Neoclassic 1776-1865


became known as White House after fire made it necessary for it to be painted

US Capitol

T.U. Walter, 1851-1865

Neoclassic 1776-1865


dome has gotten bigger over years wings and mini domes added


original home of the big GW shirtless sculpture Dr. W. Thornton/B.H.Latrobe/C. Bulfinch--worked on the various stages of the US Capitol since 1793. The building has evolved into the one that we now have. It was Walter who gave it its present character

Second Bank of the US

W. Strickland, 1818-24

Neoclassic 1776-1865


1st building directly from Greek Architecture


Doric Cloumns looked manly so money was safe


Parthenon in Athens Greece


Chartered by Monroe not rechartered by Jackson no longer a 1830s

Parthenon—in Athens = rectangle

Pantheon - in Rome = circular

Lincoln Memorial

H. Bacon, 1922

Neoclassic 1776-1865


symbol for Abe Lincoln


columns on all four sides


big statue in middle

Lyndhurst

Alexander J. Davis, 1838; 1865-7

Romantic 1776-1865


country house for NY mayor on Hudson River


bought by RR tycoon made to look like a castle medieval revival


casement style windows with lead frames

Henry Delamater Residence,

Alexander Jackson Davis, 1844

Romantic 1776-1865


gingerbread cottages but are Romantic designs


many throughout South Jersey


vertical wood siding = board and batten


front porch to commune with nature


elaborate wood trim decor

books and pamphlets on how to decorate = HGTV of its time

American Gothic

G. Wood, 1930

Romantic 1776-1865


Gothic because of house in back


board & batten


regionalism house is in Iowa


curtains & dress same material


guy=dentist girl=sister of artist


meant to bring back good ole days of US farming

Regionalism

American style of painting in the 1930s and 1940s

Llewellyn Park

A. J. Davis, 1853

Romanticism 1776-1865


US 1st suburb in Essex County


Non-religious / planned to look unplanned


living in Nature with access to Newark & NYC


gated community 425 acres 50 of which are for communal activities



Smithsonian Institution

J. Renwick, 1847-55

Romanticism 1776-1865


"The Castle" largest Romantic Style Public building in the US


nothing to do with Ancient Rome or Greece


Redish brown stone sticks out in the White DC area some did not like it

St. Patrick’s Cathedral

J. Renwick, 1853-58

Romantic 1776-1865


gift from astar family / no basement = bedrock


Cath Pop ^ due to potato famine in Ireland


3 doors in only= trinity / shaped like christian cross NYC skyscraper of its time


civil war draft slowed production

Realism

1865-1900 spring board for modern era


no exotic or imagined subjects. artist is looking for real world. These are easily experienced


"I can't paint an angel because I never seen one"

Abe Lincoln 4 days Pre POTUS


M. Brady 1860


Realism 1865-1900


looks young no beard and standing

Abe Lincoln just 4 days before assassination


M. Brady 1865


Realism 1865-1900


looks very old with beard and sitting

Ruins of the Gallego Flour Mills, Richmond,

Alexander Gardner, 1865

Realism 1865-1900


burned out flour mills = southerners did not want the building to be useable by the northerners

A Harvest of Death

Alexander Gardner (and T. O’Sullivan) (July 1863)

Realism 1865-1900


in Gardner's Photographic Sketchbook of the War 1865-1866


looter were harvesting the dead bodies


battle of Gettysburg after Lee surrenders

Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the War, 1865-66
W. Whitman, Leaves of Grass (1855)
Max Schmitt in a Single Scull

T. Eakins 1871


Realism 1865-1900


best friend MS in front scull TE in back scull


loved painting sports and competition

The Gross Clinic

T.Eakins 1875


Realism 1865-1900


too "REAL" for most audiences


TE in pic on right hand side with sketch pad


his janitor friend in tunnel


edges stopped to think like a photo


light shining on forehead and hand with scalpel


was not commissioned just hoped



The Agnew Clinic


T.Eakins 1889


Realism 1865-1900


all in white / a female nurse / a masectomy


all men in class some cuddle?


asked to do this for retiring Agnew by the graduating class offered $750

Walt Whitman


T. Eakins 1888


Realism 1865-1900


WW liked that TE painted the real him and did not idealize the portrait


light source from left

Miss Amelia. van Buren

T. Eakins, 1891

Realism 1865-1900


she was a photographer but was painted with out her camera? just like any woman with a dress sitting and a fan in her hand

Winslow Homer (1836-1910) Realism 1865-1900 Harper’s Weekly – woodcut engravings made to make several prints. well to do women of long branch in French style swim wear

Long Branch, NJ

W. Homer, 1869 Hokusai

actual painting instead of wood drawing


shows new umbrellas for sunning and shade


rich women in long flowy clothes white

West Point, Prout’s Neck

W. Homer, 1900

Realism 1865-1900


off coast of ME

The Armory Show – 69th Regiment Armory, NYC
International Exhibition of Modern Art—around 1600 works by 300 artists)February 17, 1913 to March 15, 1913