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118 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

John Singleton Copley

Born 1738 - died 1815

worked in several styles

America's 1st master painter

from limner to master painter

reflective surfaces

photo like quality


1750-1776 (style term for only decorative arts and painting) is the age of very conspicuous consumption in colonial America. Combination of Rocaille and Barroco

Mary & Elizabeth Royall

J.S. Copley 1758

can paint fabric especially satin

animals are in again (humming bird)

partial landscape

some scale issues (M hand on E shoulder)

daughters of Isaac Royall rich rum merchant

Titian Red as the public wanted

Mature American Copley


dark setting

focused light source

named for J.S. Copley creating it

Mrs.Ezekiel Goldthwait

J.S. Copley 1770-1771

Mature American Copley 1760-1774

reflective surface table top

light source from left

darkness around

50" X 40" = standard Copley size

96 1-3 hour poses

HenryPelham (Boy with a Squirrel)

J.S. Copley 1765

Mature American Copley 1760-1774

Titian red drapery

reflective surface

light source left

squirrel on chain

Copley's half brother

1738-1820 American Expatriot artist who moved to london painted big canvases such as death on a pale horse and christ rejected

J.S. Copley 1768

Mature American Copley 1760-1774

reflective table top

PR working on a sliver teapot

PR thinking

light source in front of PR

BostonTea Party
December16, 1773

Colpey father in law's tea destroyed


J.S. Copley 1770-1772

Mature American Copley 1760-1774

Titian Red coat

pointing to plans

Copley knows the business

Mr.and Mrs. Thomas Mifflin

J.S. Copley 1773

Mature American Copley 1760-1774

1st Gov of PA after revolution

showed wealth via fringe

Mifs from Philly went to Boston

wife most prominent = more detail= more time


J.S. Copley 1776

Copley on left= Smibert in bermuda group

Nature scene in back

much fabric

father in law

happy family



America gainsindependence and models the country’s new government on the ancient democraciesof Rome and Greece. The classical tradition had been percolating for a while;it helps the new nation (United States) define itself.


August 24, 79 CE

its rediscovery begins by the mid-18th century and is a significant influence on art by the late 18th century and well into the nineteenth century

Agrippina Landing at Brundisium with the Ashes of Germanicus

Benjamin West 1768

Neoclassicism 1776-1865

Looks like Virgin Mary / holding husband ashes

Ag = model of stoic virtue

Ancient Roman subject from Roman History

source material = monument of peace VM

Ariadne Asleep on the Island of Naxos

J. Vanderlyn 1809-1814

Neoclassicism 1776-1865

nude NOT naked no body hair

father was Minos

legend of the Minotaur / Titian Red

left here by Thesius who is escaping via boat

drugged and looking away

US did not like the nude

Nude V Naked

Nude = the ideal "beautiful" body without clothing

Naked = looks better with clothes on

Venus Rising from the Sea (After the Bath)

Raphaelle Peale, 1822

Neoclassicism 1776-1865

Trompe L' Oeil (Tromp Loy)

cloth was thought to be in front of painting

dainty foot / long dainty arm

Trompe L' Oeil (Tromp Loy)

Fool the EYE

Very accurate details

Controlled brush strokes

Scale is accurate

Physiology happens

George Washington

H. Greenough, 1840

Neoclassicism 1776-1865

1st Fed Gov commissioned statue

Meant to honor GW not mock him / larger than life

Head=realism neck down idealized Zeus/Jupiter

reliefs on sides = Apollo on chariot

main issue is shirtless / strong sculpture

The Greek Slave

H. Powers, 1843

Neoclassicism 1776-1865

contrapposto stance

1st London then US / sep viewing hours m/f

Nude is ok because there is a reason for nude

5'5" = life size / cross on necklace by hand

chained to post / had fictional biography

resembles Aphrodite


counterpoise the stance of many sculptures

weight shifted to one side

1 straight leg other is bent

introduced by Greeks in 400s

Egyptians do not use

CPP = way to do standing figures

Heriam Powers

US born studied in Florence Italy

The Greek Slave 1843



ancient Greek sculpture of the 4th C. BCE


H. Powers, 1850-55

Neoclassicism 1776-1865

personification of CA gold rush

Aster Family purchased gave to MET

The White Captive

Erastus D. Palmer, 1857

Neoclassicism 1776-1865

Nude ok due to being captive

head is turned to side to show shame


Nydia, the Blind Girl of Pompeii

R. Rogers, 1853

Neoclassicism 1776-1865

Blind = eyes are closed

hard of hearing = hand to ear

physical handicap = stick/cane

breast exposed ok since running from volcano

last survivor of Pompeii / just missed by falling debris

Forever Free,

E. Lewis, 1867

Neoclassicism 1776-1865

is at Howard University in DC



Death of Wolfe

B. West, , 1770

Romanticism 1776-1865

general dying in battlefield

NA watching the event

British flag being held up

Watson and the Shark

J. S. Copley, , 1778

Romanticism 1776-1865

Death and Disaster Series

Andy Warhol

1963 - 1968

Double Jackie / Electric Chair / Green Car Crash

stopped due to near death experience

Electric Chair

Andy Warhol 1963-1968

Death and Disaster Series


Romantic style 1776-1865

sing sing in new york

Green Car Crash

Andy Warhol 1963-1958

Death and disaster series


Romantic Style 1776-1865

did a lot of accidents this one is firey

Double Jackie

Andy Warhol 1963 - 1968

Death and Disaster series


Romantic style 1776-1865

Death on a Pale Horse

B. West, 1817

Romantic 1776-1865

expatriot who painted in london

uses sublime messaging

HUGE 25' W x 14'8" T


deep intense emotions that bring you closer to GOD

The Dead Man Restored to Life by Touching the Bones of the Prophet Elisha

W. Allston. 1811 - 1814

Romanticism 1776-1865

old testament / book of kings

13' x 10' very narrative image

shock, people held back by guard

Moonlit Landscape

W. Allston, 1819

romanticism 1776-1865

loosely based on experiences on his journey to US

water reflects light at night

extreme details in the clouds

almost Claudian Mode

flooded by light from full moon

Hudson River School


this directly comes under the bigger umbrella of the Romantic aesthetic but focuses on the American interest in landscape where the same qualities in Romantic history pictures could also be found.

Uses Claudian Mode A LOT

not an actual school or building but a collective group

A. Fisher

one of the first to visit Niagara Falls to sketch on site


F. C. Church, 1857

Romanticism / Hudson River School 1820-1865

7'6" W x 5'6" H

no tourist in painting

rainbow brings in GOD/sublime

#1 family destination at the time

Manifest Destiny

Belief US has the divine right to gain land from Atlantic to Pacific oceans and from the Great Lakes to the Rio Grande (and even beyond)

R. W. Emerson “Nature,” 1836--
Ralph Waldo Emerson’s slim book Nature represents one of the founding texts of American transcendentalism. Frustrated with the fusty bookishness of his contemporaries, Emerson (1803-1882) retreated to the woods to experience poetry, philosophy, and religion first hand.

an idealistic philosophical and social movement that developed in New England around 1836 in reaction to rationalism. Influenced by romanticism, Platonism, and Kantian philosophy, it taught that divinity pervades all nature and humanity, and its members held progressive views on feminism and communal living. Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau were central figures.

View from Mount Holyoke,

T. Cole, , 1836

Romanticism / HRS 1820-1865

Northampton, MA after a Thunderstorm

Preserve nature / interstate now goes through

put himself into painting in natural nature

sketched there but painted in studio

natural landscape vs human changed

Claudian Mode

Claude Lorrain specialized in landscape

Trees framing at least 1 side

centrally placed body of water

distant mountains

small scale figures in fore ground

darker foreground vs back light filled

peaceful and tranquility

used by Hudson River School artists

Kindred Spirits

Asher B. Durand, 1849

Romanticism / HRS 1820-1865

our book cover / homage to Cole

Claudian Mode

3 trees on left = holy trinity

flying bird may be Cole's spirit

Sublime messaging / outdoor cathedral

Blue Hole, Little Miami River

R. Duncanson, 1851

Romanticism / HRS 1820-1865

Claudian Mode

abolitionist movement

emphasizes fishing artist like fishing

other side of Appalachian mounts

reflective water

Autumn--On the Hudson River

J. S. Cropsey, 1860

Romanticism / HRS 1820-1865

2nd generation HRS

used tubes of paint = more vibrant colors

received poorly by queen though fake

artist sent autumn leaves to prove colors

The Heart of the Andes

F. Church, 1859

Romanticism / HRS 1820-1865

Claudian Mode / Church made 2 trips to South America

brought God in with a shrine on left side

carved his name in tree as signature

displayed with potted palm trees and heat to give it the sense of being in the tropics

Alexander von Humboldt, Kosmos, 1845-1862

Book / "most significant respect for mother nature is to paint her" Vol 2 Kosmos

Mark Twain's brain was gasping and reeling while reading this book

Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species by the Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (1859)

book / evolutionary theory

nature = place of competition

"Taking God out of Nature was not his intent"

went to Gallopogos island


F. Church, 1862

Romanticism / HRS 1820-1865 Claudian Mode

during civil war = US erupting

perfect painting at perfect time

Church climbed Cotopaxi but it did not erupt

was Highest peak of Andes in Quito, Ecuador

Twilight in the Wilderness

F. Church, 1860

Romanticism / HRS 1820-1865

Claudian Mode


C. Vaux and F. Church, 1870-72; 1888-89

Romantic Style

irregular roof line / mideval like / lack of symetry

bank of Hudson River

painting studio added in 1880s on back side

"about 1 hour from Albany is the center of the world and I own it"

The Rocky Mountains, Lander’s Peak

Albert Bierstadt, 1863

Romanticism / HRS 1820-1865

Claudian mode

reflective water / bear skinning in foreground

brought HRS to the West

possibly Alps or Himalayas but actually Rockies

Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, CA,

Albert Bierstadt, 1868

Romanticism / HRS 1820-1865

Claudian Mode

"he thought he found garden of eden"

herd of deer shows it is US

reflective water

Yellowstone National Park

1872 - 1st land put under federal protection due to HRS artists pushing for saving land

Romantic landscape design

Garden Cementaries 1776-1865 = Mt Auburn, Laurel Hill, Greenwood planned to look unplanned

Central Park 1853-1876

Earthworks late 60s-present =Spiral Jetty & Running Fence

Central Park

F.L. Olmstead and C. Vaux 1853-1876

to give residents of the city a place to feel not like they are in a city without having to go to a garden cemetery or out of the city. rocks were left to seem unplanned

Spiral Jetty

R. Smithson, 1969-70

Earthwork late 1960s-present

on great salt lake / 1500' long 20' wide

6650 tons of stone

has disappeared and reappeared due to water level

Running Fence

Christo and Jeanne-Claude, 1972-76

Earthwork late 1960s-present

all materials were given to the land owners

only up for 14 days took 4 years

24.5 miles 2 counties in California

59 ranches and 14 roads

work should be finite / ended in pacific ocean

New York Earth Room

W. DeMaria, 1977

Voyage of Life

T. Cole, 1842 w/ replica 1838-1840

4 paintings birth/youth/adult/death

youth is most sought after




R. W. Emerson "Nature," 1836

is an American landscape painting style of the 1850s – 1870s, characterized by effects of light in landscapes, through using aerial perspective, and concealing visible brushstrokes.

Beacon Rock, Newport Harbor

J. F. Kensett, 1857

Luminism 1850-1875

Shrewsbury River

J.F. Kensett, 1859

Luminism 1850-1875

Owl’s Head, Penobscot Bay

F. H. Lane, 1862

Luminism 1850-1875

Brace’s Rock

F. H. Lane, 1864

Luminism 1850-1875

Impressionism / Impressionist

a style or movement in painting originating in France in the 1860s, characterized by a concern with depicting the visual impression of the moment, especially in terms of the shifting effect of light and color.a literary or artistic style that seeks to capture a feeling or experience rather than to achieve accurate depiction

Major is Claude Monet / Impressionist was a slight that the artists used as a positive.

Thunder Storm on Narragansett Bay

M. J. Heade, 1868

Luminism 1850-1875

Romanticism / Genre


Genre –subject matter not a style; it appears in 19th-century America as an aspect of pure Romanticism

The Truant Gamblers

W. S. Mount, 1835

Romanticism / Genre 1776-1865

popular with middle class

tells a story

“Happy Birthday, Miss Jones,”

Norman Rockwell 1956

Romanticism / Genre 1776 - 1865

US most popular illustrator-genre artist

The Painter’s Triumph

W.S. Mount, 1838

Romanticism / Genre

man with whip staring at unknown masterpiece

other works facing other way

The Power of Music

W.S. Mount, 1847

Romanticism / Genre 1776-1865

white men singing / black man should be working

stereo types, bottle on ground and not working

Eel Spearing at Setauket

W. S. Mount, 1845

Romanticism / Genre 1776-1865

eastern long island

very luministic but still Romantic in style

Fur Traders Descending the Missouri

G. C. Bingham, 1845

Romanticism / Genre 1776-1865

paralled with Mark Twain's details of Missouri and Mississippi rivers

black furry thing maybe a cat?

Slave Auction

J. Rogers, 1859

Romanticism / Genre

Not well liked due to the topic

molded plaster that is beige or gray in color to look like cut stone

Checkers Up at the Farm

J. Rogers, 1875

Romanticism / Genre 1776-1865

most popular piece

farm owner with a worker

worker won



architecture during romanticism time

Virginia State Capitol

T. Jefferson, 1785-89

Neoclassic 1776-1865

1st neoclassical building in US

TJ designed while in France

based Roman temple in France Maison Carree

portico with ionic columns


Doric=most basic pure from, no base Greek

Ionic=Scrolls on top base on bottom

Corinthian=Leaves on top wide base ROMAN

(Romans are Greek wannabes)

Maison Carree in Nimes, France

VA State Capitol is based off

Massachusetts State House

C. Bulfinch, 1795-98


land was owned by Copley

Cheers Bar was originally Bull & Finch

vocal point is dome

Corinthian columns / round archways / ent stairs


T. Jefferson, 1769-84; 1796-1809

Neoclassic 1776-1865

little mountain in Italian Gibbsian & Paladian mix

Jefferson's country home

the dependency houses are hidden into the landscape

University of Virginia

T. Jefferson, 1817-25

Neoclassic 1776-1865

based off Patheon

3 need for learning 1-high air quality,2-students and faculty live together, 3-all building modeled from Roman Architectecture

1825 first class 1828 1st degree TJ 1826

Pantheon - the most influencial building in art history

in Rome

When F.L. Wright designed the Guggenheim Museum, he called it “my Pantheon.”

The White House

J. Hoban and B. H. Latrobe, c. 1795

Neoclassic 1776-1865

became known as White House after fire made it necessary for it to be painted

US Capitol

T.U. Walter, 1851-1865

Neoclassic 1776-1865

dome has gotten bigger over years wings and mini domes added

original home of the big GW shirtless sculpture Dr. W. Thornton/B.H.Latrobe/C. Bulfinch--worked on the various stages of the US Capitol since 1793. The building has evolved into the one that we now have. It was Walter who gave it its present character

Second Bank of the US

W. Strickland, 1818-24

Neoclassic 1776-1865

1st building directly from Greek Architecture

Doric Cloumns looked manly so money was safe

Parthenon in Athens Greece

Chartered by Monroe not rechartered by Jackson no longer a 1830s

Parthenon—in Athens = rectangle

Pantheon - in Rome = circular

Lincoln Memorial

H. Bacon, 1922

Neoclassic 1776-1865

symbol for Abe Lincoln

columns on all four sides

big statue in middle


Alexander J. Davis, 1838; 1865-7

Romantic 1776-1865

country house for NY mayor on Hudson River

bought by RR tycoon made to look like a castle medieval revival

casement style windows with lead frames

Henry Delamater Residence,

Alexander Jackson Davis, 1844

Romantic 1776-1865

gingerbread cottages but are Romantic designs

many throughout South Jersey

vertical wood siding = board and batten

front porch to commune with nature

elaborate wood trim decor

books and pamphlets on how to decorate = HGTV of its time

American Gothic

G. Wood, 1930

Romantic 1776-1865

Gothic because of house in back

board & batten

regionalism house is in Iowa

curtains & dress same material

guy=dentist girl=sister of artist

meant to bring back good ole days of US farming


American style of painting in the 1930s and 1940s

Llewellyn Park

A. J. Davis, 1853

Romanticism 1776-1865

US 1st suburb in Essex County

Non-religious / planned to look unplanned

living in Nature with access to Newark & NYC

gated community 425 acres 50 of which are for communal activities

Smithsonian Institution

J. Renwick, 1847-55

Romanticism 1776-1865

"The Castle" largest Romantic Style Public building in the US

nothing to do with Ancient Rome or Greece

Redish brown stone sticks out in the White DC area some did not like it

St. Patrick’s Cathedral

J. Renwick, 1853-58

Romantic 1776-1865

gift from astar family / no basement = bedrock

Cath Pop ^ due to potato famine in Ireland

3 doors in only= trinity / shaped like christian cross NYC skyscraper of its time

civil war draft slowed production


1865-1900 spring board for modern era

no exotic or imagined subjects. artist is looking for real world. These are easily experienced

"I can't paint an angel because I never seen one"

Abe Lincoln 4 days Pre POTUS

M. Brady 1860

Realism 1865-1900

looks young no beard and standing

Abe Lincoln just 4 days before assassination

M. Brady 1865

Realism 1865-1900

looks very old with beard and sitting

Ruins of the Gallego Flour Mills, Richmond,

Alexander Gardner, 1865

Realism 1865-1900

burned out flour mills = southerners did not want the building to be useable by the northerners

A Harvest of Death

Alexander Gardner (and T. O’Sullivan) (July 1863)

Realism 1865-1900

in Gardner's Photographic Sketchbook of the War 1865-1866

looter were harvesting the dead bodies

battle of Gettysburg after Lee surrenders

Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the War, 1865-66
W. Whitman, Leaves of Grass (1855)
Max Schmitt in a Single Scull

T. Eakins 1871

Realism 1865-1900

best friend MS in front scull TE in back scull

loved painting sports and competition

The Gross Clinic

T.Eakins 1875

Realism 1865-1900

too "REAL" for most audiences

TE in pic on right hand side with sketch pad

his janitor friend in tunnel

edges stopped to think like a photo

light shining on forehead and hand with scalpel

was not commissioned just hoped

The Agnew Clinic

T.Eakins 1889

Realism 1865-1900

all in white / a female nurse / a masectomy

all men in class some cuddle?

asked to do this for retiring Agnew by the graduating class offered $750

Walt Whitman

T. Eakins 1888

Realism 1865-1900

WW liked that TE painted the real him and did not idealize the portrait

light source from left

Miss Amelia. van Buren

T. Eakins, 1891

Realism 1865-1900

she was a photographer but was painted with out her camera? just like any woman with a dress sitting and a fan in her hand

Winslow Homer (1836-1910) Realism 1865-1900 Harper’s Weekly – woodcut engravings made to make several prints. well to do women of long branch in French style swim wear

Long Branch, NJ

W. Homer, 1869 Hokusai

actual painting instead of wood drawing

shows new umbrellas for sunning and shade

rich women in long flowy clothes white

West Point, Prout’s Neck

W. Homer, 1900

Realism 1865-1900

off coast of ME

The Armory Show – 69th Regiment Armory, NYC
International Exhibition of Modern Art—around 1600 works by 300 artists)February 17, 1913 to March 15, 1913