Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/148

Click to flip

148 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Where are Sperm made ?

Seminiferous tubules

What is the Cremaster muscle?

A skeletal muscle aiding in venous return

What are Sertoli cells?

Nurse cell; helps with spermatogenesis as tight junctions are formed between these

What does the Tail of the epididymis do?

Stores sperm until ejaculation

What is the Tunica albuginea?

A white coat that is made of connective tissue and helps give structure to the testis

List 3 structures that the male has that allow for proper temperature for developing sperm?

Pampiniform plexus


Tunica dartos


Sweat glands


Steroidogenic pathway 5

Cholesterol


Pregnenolone


Progesterone


Testosterone


Estrogen

Mesometrium

A portion of the broad ligament that supports the uterus

Myometrium

Muscle layer of the uterus

Isthmus

A portion of the oviduct that contains primarily smooth muscle that transport gametes

Rectogenital pouch

Separates the rectum from the reproductive tract

Ovary

Female gonad

List the correct order of how a sperm leaves the seminiferous tubules 6

Seminiferous tubules


Testis


Efferent ducts


Epididymis


Vas deferens


Urethra

How does decreased light translate into ewes cycling in the fall in ND

Decreased light decreases the stimulation on the retina which increases melatonin and GnRH

What organ makes melatonin?

Pineal

What happens to the uterotubular junction during times of high estrogen, such as heat?

It kinks

The site of fertilization is?

Ampullary ismic junction

Where do steroids get metabolized?

Liver

What anatomical structure secretes the majority of mucus for lubrication of the vagina?

Cervix

Name a species with a pendulous scrotom

Bull

If a male is short scrotum is he sterile or fertile?

Sterile

Name a species with a fibro elastic penis

Boar

What is the function of the retractor penis muscle?

The symoid flexor retracts the penis and extends

What is the function of the Sella tursica?

Protects the pituitary

What is a hormone?

A substance released by a ductless gland that goes into the blood stream

What is the gubernaculum?

Ligament needed for testis descent

What is the hypothalamo hypophyseal portal system and why is it important?

Capillary network between hypothalamus and antipituitary prevents degradation of GnRH

Name an animal that is polyestrus?

Cow

When progesterone levels are high, why don't follicles reach ovulatory size?

LH limited

What is luteolysis?

It kills the CL

What tissues makes and secretes leptin?

Fats

What does it mean to be unilaterally cryptorchid? Would this individual be sterile or fertile?

One doesn't descend making him still fertile

What is the substance needed to initiate the response of the target tissue involved in the neuroendocrine reflex?

Neurohormone

Oxytocin source and molecule

Peptide and hypothalamus

Testosterone match molecule and source

Steroid and leydig cell

LH match molecule and source

Glycoprotein and anterior pituitary

PGF2 alfa match molecule and source

Fatty acid endometrium

FSH match molecule and source

Glycoprotein anterior pituitary

Metestrus match ovarian structure and hormone

Increase progesterone, decrease estrogen. Corpus hemorrhagicum

Estrus ovarian structure and hormone

Maximal estrogen, minimal progesterone and ovulatory follicle

Proestrus ovarian structure and hormone

Increase estrogen, decrease progesterone corpus Albicans

Diestrus ovarian structure and pattern

Maximal progesterone and minimal estrogen and corpus luteum

What is a free martin?

A free martin is a female co twin male

Is a free martin sterile or fertile?why

Sterile, because of no mullarian ducts

Does is free martin look male or female?

Female because of the vulva

Which hypothalamic nuclei does the male not have?

Preoptic nuclei

Which hormone is responsible for destroying the nuclei

Estrogen

Why is the female nuclei protected

Alpha-fetoprotein

What is the testicle?

Indifferent gonad

What are the seminiferous tubules ?

Primary sex cords

What is the oocyte?

Primordial germ cell

What is the anterior pituitary?

Roof of the mouth (rathke's pouch)

What is the urethra?

Urogenital sinus

How are steroids carried through the blood?

They conjugate

Where are the receptors for steroid hormones located?

Nucleus

After steroid hormone binds to its receptor what steps occur to make a new protein project and the target tissue?

Transcription translation

Where are the receptors for protein hormones located

Plasma membrane

What does pgf2 alpha do and does it increase follicle pressure or weaken the follicle wall?

Stimulates lysosomal enzymes and weakens the follicular wall

What does PGE do and does it increase the follicular pressure or weaken the follicular wall?

Increases blood flow to the ovary causing edema and increases follicular pressure

What does progesterone do and does it increase follicular pressure or weekend the follicular wall?

Stimulates collagenase and weakens the follicular wall

What EC does granulosa cell of a growing follicle belong to and what major steroid is secreted and the predominant type of receptor it contains

EC4, estrogen, FSH

What EC does Theca Interna cell of a growing follicle have and what steroid does it secrete and what receptor does it contain?

EC 123, testosterone,LH

What EC complex does the granulosa cell from a pre ovulatory follicle belong to and what steroid is secreted and what receptor does it contain?

EC12,progesterone, LH

What is the EC for the Theca Interna cell from a pre ovulatory follicle and what steroid does it secrete and what receptor does it contain?

EC 12,progesterone, LH

What follicle cell type will the granulosa cell turn into? And what is the major secretory product of each luteal cell and what is the type of cell growth?

Large luteal cell, Oxytocin and relaxin, hpertrophy

What luteal cell will the Theca interna cell turn into? What will be the secretory product and the primary cell growth?

Small luteal cell, progesterone, hperplasia

What does superovulation mean?

There is an increase number of follicles used for embryo transfer

What is atresia?

When a follicle regresses

What is a polar body?

Extra chromosomal material

What is luteolysis?

When the CL dies off

The vigor of the CL depends on 2 things name one?

Number of luteal cells

Name a species that requires the uterus for CL regression?

Cow

Name the 2 gonadal steroids in the male that are important for spermatogenesis?

Testosterone and estrogen

What is the name of the tubule in which spermatozoa are made?

Seminiferous tubules

a producer wish to synchronize his pre-pubertal heifers the two shot injection PGF sheme. He gave the injection 11 days apart like the protocol stated he had a wreck and no heifers were in heat 2 to 3 days after the last PGF injection why did this happen?

No CL No PGF2 alfa receptors

How does PGF2 alfa get from the uterus to the CL in the cow to cause luteolysis?

Uterine vein to ovarian artery by counter current flow

Name 2 target tissues for progesterone and tell me the action that P4 has on that tissue when it binds to their receptors .

Hypothalamus low GnRH Mammory gland high gland development

Match the Leydig cell with the stereo genetic enzyme complex or complexes it contains as well as a major steroid that it secretes and the major type of receptor it contains

EC12, testosterone, LH

match the Sertoli cell with the stereo genetic enzyme complex or complexes it contains as well as a major steroid that it secretes and the major type of receptor it contains

EC4,estrogen, FSH

What process does spermatogonium A produce?

Mitosis

What process does spermatogonium B produce?

Mitosis

What process does primary spermatocyte produce?

Mitosis

What process does secondary spermatocyte produce?

Meiosis

What process does spermatids produce?

Meiosis

What process does spermatozoa produce?

Differentiation

What are the 3 parts of the spermatozoa head?

Nucleus


Acrosome


Postnuclear cap

What are the 3 parts of the spermatozoa tail?

Mid piece


Principal piece


Terminal piece

Where does the Distal centriole reside in?

Axoneme

Where does the mitochondria reside in?

Middle piece

Where does the golgi apparatus reside in?

Acrosome

Where does the proximal centriole reside in?

Annulus

What is the process of differentiation called?

Spermiogenesis

What is the release of the spermatoza into the siminiferous lumen called

Spermiation

What is the flehman respond or what is its purpose

Lip curl to detect pheromones

Why would someone measure scrotal circumference

Daily sperm production

What is libido?

Sex drive

What is lordosis?

Mating posture

Prior to ejaculation, emissions from the accessory sex glands are released. Why does the male want to do that?

Cleanse the tract

What is dihydrotestosterone?

Is the non aromatizable androgen

What is the species specific sperm receptor called?

ZP-3

Where does a stallion deposit his semen in a mare when mating?

Uterus

What does seminal plasma contain that aids in myometrial contractions?

PGF2 ALFA

What is capacitation?

When sperm become fertile in the female tract

What is the acrosome reaction?

Is the fusion of the spermatozoa plasma membrane to the outer acrosomal membrane

What is retrograde loss of semen?

When semen is lossed when it flows out of the female tract

What is semen?

Semen are what seminal fluid is called in the male before they are ejaculated

If dead sperm are placed in the uterus, will they get to the site of fertilizarion?

Yes

What is the perivilelline space?

The space between the ZP and the oolema

Are there more or less neutrophils during heat?

More

Name a species that has a relatively low ejaculation volume?

Bull

What is the role of the Ischiocavernous muscle in the process of erection\ejaculation? Does it constrict or relax?

Constrict, no venous return

What is the role of the retractor penis muscle in the process of erection \ ejaculation? Does it constrict or relax?

Relax, allows penis to expand

What is the role of the bulbourethral muscle in the process of erection \ ejaculation? Does it constrict or relax?

Constrict, milk semen out

What is the Coolidge effect

Introduction of novel female reduces the refractory period

What are cortical granules and how do they play a role in preventing polyspermy

Cortical granules release enzymes that cause the ZP to Hardin making it so the polyspermy are blocked.


-no oolema microvilli

What is the allantois?

Vascular ides the chorion

What is the chorion?

Outermost layer of the fetal placenta serves as a immunological barrier

What is a yolk sac?

Needed for early nutrition of the embryo, primordial germ cells are housed here

What is amnion?

A protective sac that prevents desiccation

What is a cows pregnancy signal?

Interferon tau

What is a ewe pregnancy signal?

Interferon tau

What Is a sows pregnancy signal?

Estrogen

What is a dog's pregnancy signal?

None

What is a mares pregnancy signal?

Conceptus migration

What is a humans pregnancy signal?

HCG

What are necrotic tips?

They are formed because the allantois does not fuse with the Chorion at the end of the placenta. They are a plug

What are the 3 forces that are needed for hatching of the blastocyst?

1. Fluid and growth accumulation


2. Enzymes are produced from the triphectoderm


3. Contraction of the blastocyte

What does totipotent mean?

Each cell gives rise to complete conceptus

Describe the endocrine release of PGF2 alfa in the pig during maternal recognition of pregnancy

In cyclicity, pgf2 alfa is released from the endocrine into the blood stream


During pregnancy, estrogen causes PGF2 alfa to be released into the uterine lumen

What is a morula?

Vitelline placenta

What is an eutherian?

True placenta

What does androgen binding protein do?

Binds to testosterone

Why does androgen binding protein need to be present in order for male to be capable of spermatogenesis?

It enables spermatogenesis and maturation in the epididymis

Where does a bull deposit his semen in a cow when mating?

Uterine body

What is sialomucin?

A mucus where sperm swim called a privileged pathway

What does the acrosome reaction allow the sperm to do?

Allows sperm to fuse to the oolema

What is syngamy?

Fusion

During natural mating, how does the stallion prevent retrograde loss of semen?

They squirt 5 to 8 times mainly siminal plasma

During natural mating, how does the boar prevent retrograde loss of semen?

Forms a cervical plug

What is the site of fertilization

Ampullary isthmic junction

What is the non cellular structure surrounding the oocyte called?

Zona pellucida

What are neutrophils doing in the female tract?

Phagocytosis

Name one acrosomal enzyme?

Acrosin

What molecule does Oxytocin belong to? And the source?

Peptide, hypothalamus

What molecule does testosterone belong To? source

Steroid, leydig cell

What molecule does LH belong to?source

Glycoprotein, anterior pituitary

What molecule does PGF2 alpha belong to?source?

Fatty acid, endometrium

What molecule does FSH belong to? Source?

Glycoprotein, anterior pituitary