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142 Cards in this Set

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Which of the following is an example of microbes that include acellular agents that cause diseases, such as measles and influenza?




a. Bacterial Pathogens, such as E. Coli




b. Parasitic Pathogens, such as nematodes




c. decomposers that break down wastes




d. viral pathogens that infect cells and destroy them.

d. viral pathogens that infect cells and destroy them

The names of the two domains of prokaryotes are______________and ______________.

Archaea;bacteria

The 2 types of optical microscopes that you would typically use in a microbiology lab are____________, and bright field.

Dark field

Bacteria reproduce by_________.

binary fission

____________________ contributed to the field of microbiology by using simple microscopes for viewing microscopes that he called "anamacules".

Antoine Van Leeuwenhoek

What is the primary reason for the Bubonic plague's expansion into early European populations?

International trade and travel increased allowing foreigners to transmit infections.

T or F:


An unknown bacterial species has just gone through the Gram Stain procedure. If all of the bacteria stained pink after the application of Safranin, one would conclude that the bacteria are Gram Positive

False- they would be gram negative not positive.

T or F:


Light having a longer wavelength, such as red light, will provide better resolution of bacteria than will light of a shorter wavelength, such as a blue light, when used as a light source for a compound optical microscope.

False- Light have a shorter wavelength.




than will light of a longer wavelength.

T or F: Flagella, cilia, and pseudopodia are used as extracellular structures by many bacteria that protect them from phagocytosis.

False-

Flagella are used as extracellular motile structures by many bacteria. Cilia is not used by bacteria.

T or F:


The theory of spontaneous generation states that living organisms ranging from unicellular microorganisms to multicellular animals can arise from pre-existing cells.

False- arise from Non-living cells

T or F: when light of a certain wavelength interacts with an object or organism in a medium, the resulting light emitted fluoresces in such a way as to produce light of a different wavelength that appears to glow.



True

T or F: Contrast is the ability to see parts of an image, such as two objects close together, as clear, discrete points using an optical system

False- Resolution is the ability

____________is the ability to distinguish between two objects.

Resolution

____________is when light waves bend around the edge of an object, such as the edge of a bacterial cell.

Diffraction

______________is the bending of light waves as they pass from one medium to another.

Refraction

____________________is the use of stains and dyes to distinguish cells from their background.

Contrast

________________________is the illumination of the background of a microscopic sample

Bright field microscopy

Briefly describe the similarities and differences between the experiments of Francesco Redi and those of Louis Pasteur.

Francesco Redi's experiment which was only one jar had no oxygen(air). whereas Louis pasteur experiment allowed air to reach the broth




Similarities- Both stopped any microorganims from getting to them. Pasteurs experiment disproved spontaneous generation

Give on example each for how the terms "stain" and "dye" should be used in the context of microscopic techniques used and described in this class.

Gram Stain= 3




Dyes are used to color microorganims. Certain ones will show up as pink or purple depending on the microorganism

What is meant when a pathogen, such as a bacterial strain, is said to be virulent? And: give an example of a virulence factor.

Virulence Factors List: CapsulesFimbriaeOuter Membrane ProteinsTechoic AcidsProtein AM-Protein

Microbiology Topic that has been in the news recently. You may use one that we have discussed in class or that you have heard about elsehwere. Please provide your reasoning for determining the topic to be of relevance to microbiology.

Vaccines-




They are relevant to microbiology because microbiology is used to discover and create vaccines. Through microbiology we can discover what causes diseases, and also how we can fix t hem. Jenners small pox vaccine and Pasteurs rabies vaccines are just some examples of vaccines that were invented through microbiology.

E.Coli is present in a liquid sample at a concentration of between 10^4 and 10^6 bacteria per mL. To determine the precise number of living bacteria in the sample, it would be best to__________________.

Plate out an appropriate dilution of the sample on nutrient agar.

Unlike a silent mutation a frameshift mutation can cause:

1. early termination of translation


2. an altered polypeptide


3. a polypeptide with too many amino acids


4. a polypeptide with too few amino acids

________________ aerobes only grown if oxygen is present.

Obligate

Sheep blood agar is best defined as_______________ and ______________.

enriched and differential

________________is the causative agent of numerous skin infections of the skin and other parts of the body and is a Gram+ bacterium, spherical-shaped in chains, and is beta hemolytic.

Streptococcus Pyogenes

When water pressure builds up inside of a cell due to solutes in the cell causing water to flow into the cell, this pressure is called _____________ ___________.

Osmotic pressure

If one knows the exact quantities of each ingredient in a bacterial growth medium, the medium would be classified as______________.

Defined

Bacteria growing only at the bottom of a thyoglycolate broth would be classified as_________________.

obligate anaerobes

Which of the following does not describe the DNA of cellular organisms?






a. double stranded helix




b. Contains A,C,T,G




c. is single stranded




d. contains hydrogen bonds

is single stranded

The central dogma of a molecular biology states that genetic information flows in what direction?

from DNA to RNA to Protein

In retroviruses ________polymerase uses a DNA template to make multiple copies of DNA that integrates into the ________________of host cells.

RNA, Chromosomes

Nutrient agar is an example of a ___________solid medium.

Complex

DNA replication occurs bi- directionally producing leading strands and lagging strands in a ________________________ manner that results in two daughter DNA molecules.

semi- conservative

__________ is part of transcription. This type of RNA serves as the re-written" message incoded in the DNA.

mRNA

What are the two types of codons that signal for the initiation and termination of translation?

Stop Codon, Start Codon

The first amino acid of translation is always which amino acid?

Methionine(MET)

What is the difference between an obligate anaerobe and a facultative anaerobe?

1. an obligate anaerobe will die in the presence of oxygen.




2. A facultative can live with or without oxygen.

Explain why mesophiles can be a significant problem in the medical industry, especially with regard to pathogenic bacteria.

Because they thrive at a temperature of 15 to 45 degrees celsius. 37 degrees Celsius is body temp

When lactose is present, the lac operon is always "on" so that lactose can be broken down. Describe a condition where this statement is not necessarily always true.

if glucose is present

Give the properly presented genus name and specific epithet for the gram positive obligately anaerobic, endospore forming bacterium responsible for gas gangrene. Given that this is also a rod-shaped bacterium, give the technical name for its cellular morphology.

Clostridium Perfringens; bacillus

What is the name given to the region of the tryp operon that weakens the ability of the RNA polymerase to transcribe the genes necessary for making tryptophan?

Lac operon

What kind of mutation does a UV light cause

Thymine Dimer

The Ames test is a way to detect the mutagenic properties of a chemical. If more bacteria mutate from his- to his+, what does this tell you about the mutagenic properties of the chemical?

suggests the mutagen causes mutations

Explain why frameshift mutations can be very detrimental to a cell.

Because they produce a significant change in the reading of the message.

frameshifts cause a change in all of the amino acids in a genethe effects of frameshift can change almost the entire protein


Which of the following is not a bacterial skin disease?




a. rubella




b. Acne




c. Scalded skin syndrome




d. Scarlet fever




e. folliculitis

Rubella

___________________ is the primary route of infection of chickenpox.

respiratory system

______________is a normal flora of the lower respiratory tract.

There are no normal flora in the lower respiratory tract!

Which of the following is not an example of a fungal skin infection?




a. Athlete's foot




b. Ringworm




c. scalded skin syndrome




d. candidiasis

Scalded skin syndrome

Which of the following a spirochete STD?

a. Gonorrhea

b. Meningitis

c. Chlamydia

d. Syphilis

e. HPV

Syphilis

Which of the following is an example of natural adaptive immunity?




a. getting chickenpox from another infected individual




b. receiving the chicken pox vaccine




c. receiving antibodies against chicken pox from someone else.




d. passage of antibodies from mother to fetus through the placenta

passage of antibodies from mother to fetus through the placenta

What are the modes of action by antibodies?






hint* there are 4





Agglutination




Complement Activation




Precipitation




Neutrilization





E. Coli causes UTI when it ___________________enters the urogenital system.

oppurtunistically

_____________is an example of a genus of a Gram negative coccus that occurs in pairs and causes neonatal eye infections when transferred from mother to newborn during childbirth

Neisseria


Inflammation is a from of natural___________immunity.

Innate

_________are not effective at neutralizing any types of viruses.

Antibiotics

____________are proteins produced by the immune system in response to microbial invaders and are part of______________immunity

Antibodies; adaptive

Penicillin is a __________spectrum antibiotic that kills by inhibiting _____________synthesis.

Narrow; cell wall

Complement is a type of_______________that disrupts the cell membranes of ________________.

Protein system; bacteria

What is the difference between bacteriocidal and bacteriostatic and why is it important to know which type to use against certain types of bacteria?

1. Bacteriocidal kills all bacteria.




2. Bacteriostatic waits until the immune system is weakened and then it starts working. If you use bacteriocidal against Gram negative bacteria in an area where there might be a lot of Gram negative bacteria such as your blood it could be fatal

_________________are antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis by insertion of wrong amino acids

Aminoglycosides

____________________is a topical antibiotic that inhibits cell wall synthesis

Bacitracin

________________is a class of beta-lactam antibiotics that targets bacterial cell walls.

Cephalosporins

_____________specifically inhibits protein synthesis in bacteria and prevents malaria.

Doxycyline

___________disrupt bacterial membranes without significant threat to host membranes.

Polymycins

_________________is a synthetic bacteriocidal inhibitor of bacterial DNA gyrase.

Quinilones

_____________is used for treating TB by blocking RNA transcription

Rifampin

_______________is a bacteriostatic antibiotic that inhibits protein sysnthesis; produced by soil fungi

Streptomycin

______________inhibits protein synthesis; adverse side effect causing discoloration of teeth.

Tetracylcline

___________________is the "drug of last resort; big guns"; inhibits cell wall synthesis; used against MRSA.

Vancomycin

Shingles:

1. Properly- presented scientific name of the causative agent.

2. signs and symptoms of the disease:

3. how it is transmitted

4. Prevention and treatment

5. type of pathogen:

1. Varicella-Zoster




2. Rash on only a small area, such as your side or face. Shingles occurs after sleeping dormant in your body. It doesn't occur until your immune system is weakened this is why it generally occurs in the elderly




3. aerially




4. There is a shingles vaccine called Zostavax( it is only recommended for those who are 60 and older.)




5. Virus, Viral

What are "wait- and- see" and "watch-and-wait" antibiotic prescriptions and why are they important in preventing or reducing antibiotic resistance? Also, list and describe one microbiology- related current news topic.

Wait and see is where a doctor prescribes an antibiotic, but the patient can't get the prescription filled for 2 to 3 days. Watch and wait is basically the same thing. The patient needs to keep an eye on their infection to make sure its not worsening. This is important because people are overusing antibiotics which is making people resistant to the antibiotics.






Vaccines are being discussed frequently in the news. They are important in preventing the spread of diseases. A vaccine often gives a lower dose of the strain of the disease such as the chickenpox vaccine.

Causes viral food poisoning, especially in infants and young children?

Rotaviruses

____________describes normal, quiet, unlabored breathing.

Eupnoea

Forms a pseudomembranous biofilm in the URT and is caused by a bacterium that has undergone lysogenic conversion?

Corynebacterium diphtheria

The majority of cases of nongonococcal meningitis in infants and children were caused by which of the following prior to a successful, effective vaccine against this organism.

Hemophilus influenzae

Most cases of parasitic lung infections that travel from the digestive to respiratory system are caused by what type of organism?

Helminth

Causative agent for influenza, such as H1N1?

Rhinoviridae

________________ is an endospore-forming bacterium often responsible for food poisoning by intoxication?

Clostridium botulinum

______________refers to severe diarrhea that often contains large quantities of mucus and sometimes blood.

Dysentery

Mycobacterium spp. are difficult to treat using antibiotics that inhibit cell wall synthesis because these organisms _________________

lack a cell wall


___________________is a protein on the surface of influenza viruses that allows the virus to escape from the host cell it replicates in but is not the same as the H antigen of E. Coli O157:H7

Neuraminidase

Typhus and typhoid fever are ______ the same disease, but they are caused by the _____ species of rickettsias.

NOT; same

___________ is a GI disease of the small intestine, whereas ________________ is a respiratory disease of the _________

Shigellosis;Salmonellosis; URT

Whooping cough is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the bacterium _______________________

Bordetella Pertussis

_______________ is the most common causative agent of TB.

Tuberculosis

Mayonnaise is often the cause of many food born illnesses.

This is a myth

List the normal microbial flora of the lower respiratory tract(LRT), and list two URT oppurtunistic pathogens.

There is no normal microbial flora of the LRT.




2. Streptococcus Pneumonia, Haemophilus Influenza





In certain respiratory infections in involving fungal organisms, secondary, chronically-inflamed lesions called gummas form in the skin, particulary on face. How does this fungal pathogen spread to the integumentary system?

Through endospores

When someone calls in sick to work stating that she cannot make it to work because she has food poisoning from something she ate the night before, what facts regarding food poisoning shed doubt as to the validity of this circumstance. Furthermore the person states that she may have contracted a flu virus, causing her condition and that she will be going to the doctor for a z-pack Rx, what are some inherent indications that this person is not well-informed about the nature of her illness?

Antibiotics don't work on viral food posioning.




Food poisoning usually occurs in 24 to 48 hrs.

Dental Plaque




a. properly-presented scientific name of the causative agent;




b. signs and symptoms of the disease; c. how it is transmitted; d. prevention and treatment; e. type of pathogen(bacterial, archaea, fungal, multicellular parasite, viral or prion.





a. Streptococcus mutans


b. Biofilm over teeth


c. Brushing teeth, professionaly removed, fluoride


d. Bacterial

What does H and N stand for in H1N1? B. What is a segmented viral genome? C. What is the difference between the pathology of avian flu versus what is often called "swine flu" caused by H1N1?

The hemaglutinin has 18 different antigens and Neuraminidase has 11 different antigens. H stands for Hemaglutinin and N stands for Neuraminidase. It has eight segmented RNA genomes. Avian flu is more fatal in that it has killed about 60% of those infected since it surfaced in 1997. The avian flu (H5N1) has more hemaglutinin than the swine flu (H1N1) does.

Which of the following is an example of microbes that include a cellular, agents that cause diseases such as Ebola and influenza?

Viral pathogens that infect cell and destroy them

Which of the following are the names of the two domains of prokaryotes?

Archaea and bacteria

Bacteria reproduce by which to the following processes?

Binary fission

Which of the following are two examples of optical microscope that would typically be used in a microbiology lab

Dark field and bright field

Which of the following people contributed to the field of microbiology by developing methods for isolating pure cultures of bacterial pathogens and correlating causative agents with specific diseases

Antoine van Leeuwenhoek

Besides the importance to human health why is it important to study microbiology?

Microorganisms provide insight into life processes of all life forms

Although interesting the botanist what are typically not studied in microbiology

Plants

A primary reason for bubonic plague expansion into early European populations is that European populations:

But the other regions, taking with them the vectors that carried the diseases

Which of the following are means of motility for some bacteria

Flagella

The theory of spontaneous generation states that:

Life can arise from nonliving materials without any pre-existing life

Louis Pasteur contributed to the field of microbiology by which of the following?

Development of a rabies vaccine

Contrast is :

The use of dyes to stain cells so as to distinguish them from their background

Which of the following is a spherical bacterial shape

Cocci

Which of the following is an arrangement of bacteria that means arranged in chains?

Strepto

The endosymbiotic theory explains:

The origin of eukaryotes

Which of the following is rod shaped bacteria

Bacilli

What is the correct sequence of steps starting with glycolysis

Glycolysis formation of acetyl coenzyme A( transition), Krebs cycle, electron transport chain,

Which event produces the most ATP

Chemiosmosis coupled with electron transport

What is anabolism

Is the synthesis of large molecules from smaller ones using ATP as an energy source

Which of the following is an example of an obligately anaerobic rod-shaped bacterial genus that produces endospores

Clostridium

Which of the following statement is not true concerning an enzyme?

An enzyme is consumed in a chemical reaction

Which of the following terms describes an enzyme without its constituent cofactors

Apoenzyme

Catabolism is the breakdown of larger molecules into smaller molecules called

Monomers

Penicillin is most affected on active cell wall production in which of the following

Gram-positive bacterial cells

During binary fission the what divides

Bacterial cell

During binary fission the DNA must be copied during a process called

Replication

Which of the following divides by budding

Yeast

Of the following macromolecules, which two were originally thought to be complex enough to contain the genetic code

Proteins and nucleic acids

If a cell needs more of the amino acid aspartic acid, the mRNA for an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of aspartic acid would be produced by

Transcription

In order to obtain a viable count of a bacterial population one would need to do with which of the following

Pour plates of various dilutions of the bacterial culture

A bacterial cell must double its components before starting to divide. While gearing up for cell division, the bacterial cells in a culture medium demonstrate a period of time referred to as

Lag phase

Transcription and translation in prokaryotic cells take place where

In the cytoplasm

In certain microbial agents information in the South can flow from both DNA to RNA and from RNA to DNA flow of information from RNA to DNA is called

Reverse transcription

Endospore formation occurs in which two medically important genera

Bacillus and Clostridium

A chemically Complex medium, such as chocolate agar, contains a wide variety of nutrients for supporting the growth of a fastidious organisms. For this reason chocolate agar is classified as which type of medium

Enriched

Replication of DNA occurs by a process that is ? and that each daughter chromosomes contains a hybrid of the original template DNA and the newly synthesized in

Semi conservative

Which of the following is not a kingdom?



A. Monera


B. Protista


C.Animalia


D.fungi


E.archaea

E. Archaea

All of these are eukaryotes except?



A. Monera


B.protista


C. Animalia


D. Fungi


E.plantae


Monera

select the kingdoms and haeckles

Plantae, Protista, animalia

Whitakers five Kingdom system includes

Aristotle's two kingdoms and haeckles Three Kingdoms

All of the following are domains except


A. Bacteria


B.eukarya


C.archaea


D. Protista


Protista

Who is considered the father of taxonomy

Linneaus

Binomial nomenclature identifies each living organism based upon

Genus and species

Which of these properties distinguishes viruses from cells

Viruses are much smaller than cells

Which of these components is found in all complete viral particles

Nucleic acid core, protein capsid, and lipid envelope

Which of the following best describes the nucleic acid present in a virion particle

Single stranded or double stranded DNA or RNA

Which of the following is made of protein subunits and determines the shape of a virus

Capsid

How are envelopes commonly acquired by virus particles,

Budding through the host cell membrane

What are viral spikes

Glycoprotein projections that help in viral attachment to host cells

Which of the following characteristics would classify a virus is a non-living particle

Viruses cannot perform metabolic functions on their own