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80 Cards in this Set

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Islamic Legacy

Syrian Christian Monks translate Greek/Roman writing, Islamic people copied more non religious texts, Doctors and medicine, Surgery sterilization

Motivations for Exploration

Trade routes --> wealth, exotic foreign goods


Religion --> The Great Commission


Finding a faster way to India

Feudalism

Social System where nobility held lands from the crown in exchange for military service.

Inventions from the Middle Ages

3-field system, Printing press, Gun Powder, Spectacles, Clock

Columbian Exchange

Widespread transfer of animals, plants, culture, humans, diseases, technology, ideas between Americans and afro European continents. European colonization and trade and slave trade

Byzantine Empire

Eastern Roman Empire, reestablished Roman law, new Capital pf Rome, Byzantine. Lasted several hundred years after fall of Roman Empire. Flourished while West was in decline. Constantine ruled

Fall of Rome

Barbarian attacks took advantage of politically unstable and fractured state of the Empire

William the Conqueror

Leader of the Norman French Army in the battle of Hastings. Fought agains English. Norman victory, he unified England. Father of Henry the first.

Wergil

Low assigning a price to a person. If you kill them you must pay back their worth

Visigoths

Led by leader Alaric, pushed by Huns with Rome. Asked for port of Northern Italy by Rome did not give it to them. After attacking Rome, Visigoths acquired land. Adding to depletion of Rome - Battle of Adrianople

Vinland

Modern day Newfoundland. First Eastern contact with Western World. Viking colony

Vikings

Germanic tribes from Scandinavia who were the first to discover north america. They used the sea to conquer and targeted England, Greenland, Vinland, and Europe

Vassal

People under mutual contract, pay in money, military service. A holder of land under the service of a king like leader that would pay a tithe to their leader and manage a fief

Triangular Trade

Major trade where Europe traded manufactured goods like Rum and Cigars to Africa for slaves which in turn were traded to the Caribbean for raw resources like sugar and Tobacco and then back to Europe -

Transubstantiation

Idea that bread and wine are the actual blood and body of Christ.

Tithe

Tax taken for the support of the Church

Three-field System

Three used to grow crops and one is not then switches every season

The Prince

Written by Machiavelli, Political treaty, one of the fist works of political philosophy

Tetrarchy

Rule of Four, Created by Diocletian, Constintine stopped it

Serf

The workers of Land under mutual contracts with the lords, got paid money for their military services.

Renaissance Art

Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Donatello, Rapael, Humanism and Classicism influence

Renaissance

Classicism, Humanism, Modern state-craft, Relative Secularism, Studias Humanitates

Reforms of Diocletian

Changed Political Structure, Retuned to Barter system, Tetrarchy

Reformation

Several Sects of Christianity arose, Caused Several wars throughout Europe, Made the Church irrelevant (95 thesis)

Reconquista

Series of campaigns by Christian state to recapture territory from Muslims, Charles the Hammer Martel

Printing Press

Increased literacy because of the mass production of literature --> Spread of anti Christian writings 95 Thesis

Predestination

Belief that god already knows where each persons soul will go when they die, Part of Reformation,

Pogroms

Persecution of a Religious Group, Largely associated with Jews, Especially during the plague

Pluralism

Nobility could hold more than 1 office at a time, led to absenteeism ( officials ignoring their duties)

Papal Corruption

Corruption within the Catholic Church (Indulgences, Pluralism, and Sacraments), Let to the Reformation, Indulgences funded Christopher Columbus exploration

Manor

Plot of land with a house, farmed and maintained by serfs

Magna Carta



Regulated relationship between King and Feudal lords (EX- common law, statutory law), Influences - government and the US constitution

Machiavelli

Wrote The Prince - which gave rules/guidelines on how to rule a country - , Held on to power by being a dick, Renaissance Era

Leonardo da Vinci

Painted the Mona Lisa, and the Last Supper; Inventor, tinkerer, mathematician

Ka'ba

Holiest place in Islam, Big cube in Mecca, Muslims make the pilgrimage at least once in a lifetime

John Calvin

Reformed the Church, Predestination- the elect are pre determined to go to heaven

Joan of Arc

French heroine, unlikely military hero, leads french to victory at Orleans against English, Burned at the stake and convicted of heresy

Islam

Interwoven with Western culture (numbers, medicine, art, architecture, culture founded on faith

Isaac Newton

Laid down foundations for classical mechanics, contributed to optics, developed calculus, explanation for gravity

Indulgances

Donation to Church for forgiveness of sin, funded Christopher Columbus' exploration

Humanism

Concern to develop human potential and value the individual, Relative Secularism - sought to define the place of humanity in God's divine plan (relationship between man and god),

Hernan Cortez

Took the city of Tenochtitlan but locals revolted and killed Spanish... small pox was already introduced so they died too

Heresy

Belief or opinion contrary to the orthodox religious doctrine (especially Christian)

Henry VII

Married Catherine of Aragon but had no male heirs (English Reformation), WHORE, ENGLAND

Heliocentric

Sun at the center of the universe, other bodies revolve around it

Incas

South American; taken over by Francisco Pizzarro

Guilds

Associations of merchants/craftsmen that offered protection to their members and set rules for their work and products

Great Schism

2-3 Popes at one time in power, this showed the weakening of the Catholic church.

Gothic Architecture

Evolved from the Romanesque architecture, Flying butress

Geocentric

Earth is at the center of the universe

Muhammad

;The prophet for Islam, Consider him the last prophet, Wrote the holy book Qur'an

Mongols

Took over most of Asia but didn't expand to Europe because Khan died, Introduced gun powder to Europe, Ended mongol threat

Middle Passage

;Stage of the triangular trade- brought millions of people from Africa to the New World, Part of African slave trade, many died during the voyage

Michelangelo

Created the David sculpture, The Sistine Chapel, Accredited with a new style of painting - mannerism

Martin Luther

Rejected major Catholic doctrines, Wrote the 95 Thesis which made the church irrelevant, you could only reach salvation through faith not indulgences, Rejected transubstantiation

Galileo

Genius in math, astronomy, physics, and thinkering, created the telescope (8x), Moons of Jupiter, Laws of Motion

Frankish Kingdom

Germanic Tribe, Established by Clavis

Francisco Pizarro

Took over the Incan Empire, Catholic-Christian

Flagellant Movement

Used items to whip themselves as a cure for the black death so God would not punish them with the disease.

Fief

Inherited land or estate, Thanks to Charles the Bald

Ferdinand Magellan

Famous for being 1st person to circumnavigate the world - actually killed in Philippines, Reasons to do it - power, profit, middle man trade, religion, used a Caravel ship

Crusades

Only war sanctioned by the Church, Wanted to take Holy Land from Muslims, 9 Crusades )none successful), Impact - cheeks, sparked interest in travel, attacks on Jewish

Copernicus

Heliocentric model: Sun in the center of Universe, Dedicated book to the Pope, More math focused so didn't upset church, "On the Movement of Heavenly Bodies"

Constantine

Legalized Christianity (but not yet official religion of Rome), passes Edict of Milan = freedom of religion, demolished tetrarchy, first Christian Emperor (not Holy Roman Emperor) FIRST CHRISTIAN ROMAN EMPEROR

Confession

Confessing your sins to the Church, Getting said sins resolved, one sacrament that wasn't in the Bible but yet a Catholic tradition (Martin Luther spoke out against it)

Classicism

The "Classics" study of Greek and Roman literature, history, culture, art, architecture, and language, Renaissance men expanded the cannon and sought out long lost manuscripts, RENAISSANCE

Church of England

Henry 8th created it after the Pope rejected his request to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, Break away from the Catholic Church, Anglican Church

Christopher Columbus

Thought he could reach India through Atlantic/Caribbean ocean, Ended up "discovering" America (New World), King Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain funded his journey

Chivalry

Knights' code of honor, "horse soldiery", behavior and ethical code of nobility

Charles "The Hammer" Martel

Founding father of the middle ages, development of feudalism and knighthood, Battle of Tours - Beginning of Reconquista = prevented Islamic spread into Europe, "Hammered" his opponents, PREVENTED SPREAD OF ISLAMIC EMPIRE INTO EUROPE

Charlemagne

Inherited Frankish Empire, Expanded boarders and removed Lombards from Italy, Attempted to Christianize his empire (Catholic), CROWNED FIRST HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR

Caravel

small, highly maneuverable ship with 5 sails, developed by Portuguese, used in exploration in the age of discovery

Bloody Mary

Started a movement

Black Death

The Bubonic Plague, High mortality rate, 3 Cures - killing jews, Flagellant movement, Ring around the rosy, 4 causes - God, Jews, Astrological, Earthly exhalation

Battle of Hastings

INITIATED NORMAN CONQUEST OF ENGLAND--> Hundred years war was a result, Fought between Norman and French armies and English Army

Aztecs

Hernan Cortez conquered them, Motezuma thought Cortez to be Quetzalcoatl (God)

Arianism

Conflict over the trinity, Teachings emphasized the Father's divinity over the son, established the church doctrine (HERESY)

Aqueducts

Structure that moves water to where it is to where it needs to go, Engineered by the Romans (Roman Arches)

95 Thesis

Made Church irrelevant, people now read the bible themselves, Reformation could not have happened without it, written by Martin Luther3 points:Indulgences, Pluralism, Sacraments (confession)

100 Years War

Between France and England, Norman Conquest of England, Edward 3rd tried to claim the French throne, Power struggle over French throne --> Treaty of Troyes (French throne will pass to England)