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150 Cards in this Set

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"Greek deceive turning"

Wheel on a stick. Look at one slot and spin and see a motion. Look at slot (not the pictures) because it serves as like "one frame" so our mind is tricked.

Zeotrope

"Greek life-turning". Made by Eadweard Muybridge. First to record continuous live action or "series photography". Set up 12 cameras on a racetrack, takes photos when rider on horse passes by.

Kinetograph and Kinetoscope

Developed by WKL Dickson and Thomas Edison. In order to watch film from kinetograph, need to put in kinetoscope. Only one person can watch at a time.

Cinematographe

Developed by Auguste and Louis Lumiere. Takes pictures and records/projects film. Improvement from kinetograph (much lighter).

Vitascope

Developed by Charles Fracis Jenkins and Thomas Armat. Rights purchased by Thomas Edison. Used to project kinetograph films.

Lumiere Brothers

-Recorded simple, everyday events.


-Their work goes from raw footage (almost like documentaries) to film that has more plot, conflict, acting ("Watering the gardner").


-Work continues to progress to more than one shot (editing), move the camera (different angels). For example, "Sick Kitten" by George Albert Smith


"Dramatic Irony"

Started seeing in Lumiere Bro's films. Audience knows something characters may not know.

George Melies

-French magician


-Trick shots and special effects


-"Trip to the moon"



Difference between Lumiere films and Melies

Melies: more sophisticated. Has set design, numerous shots, enlarged scope of story telling.


However, they are similar in that the camera remains stationary.

"The Life of an American Fireman"

By Edwin S. Porter.


Contains many shots combined to make a storyline that makes sense instead of just a single shot.

"Great Train Robbery"

By Edwin S. Porter.


We notice "parallel action".

Parallel Action

Cut back to a scene, assume it's happening at the same time as other plot lines.

D.W Griffith

"Grandfather of modern directing"



"Birth of a Nation"

Directed by D.W Griffth.


Breaks down a scene into a series of shots. So he's able to direct attention to most important parts.


Zooms into certain objects/angles for emphasis.


Many levels of p of v.

Varied Narrative Emphasis

Wide shots, close shots...etc. Camera is being moved all over the room.

Film form

The tools and techniques that design a film

Content vs. Form

Content = The actual story/plot/characters/themes.


Form = How the content is presented. The decisions the director makes to present the content. (Ex: style, editing, camera).

Formal Elements

Camera, lighting, editing

Preproduction

Anything you do before the actual filming. (script gets written, casting, location scouting).

Production

Actual filming

Post-production

Editing all the filming, sound design and effects, special effects.

"Shot"

Interval between edits. Uninterrupted bit of film.

Running Time vs. Story Time

RT: The actual amount of time it takes to watch the movie.


ST: The time the story spans over.


Movies can have different and similar RT and ST.

Components of a shot

Camera position, camera angle, camera lens, camera movement.

Camera position: "Close up"

Usually just the face fills up frame (really see the emotion on the face).

Camera position: "Medium Shot"

Usually just the waist/chest up.

Camera position: "Long/full shot"

Usually shows the entire body. (Can see much more of setting and interactions of characters).

Camera position: "Single"


"Two-shot", "Three-shot"

1 subject, 2 subjects, 3 subjects

Camera position: "Over-the-shoulder"

Camera is behind/next to shoulder of character.

Camera position: "Extreme close-up"

Very very close up on a person/thing (emphasis on detail).

Camera angle: "Low"

Camera is looking up at characters. Subtly under eye-line.

Camera angle: Eye-level

Most common. Same level as character's face.

Camera angle: High

Camera is looking down at subject.

Camera angle: Canted angle (Dutch angle)

Crooked/not parallel to the ground like usual. Usually used to show chaos.

Camera lens: Focal length

Camera lenses are defined by their focal length.


How far the lens is from the film.

Camera lens: Telephoto lens/long lens

Usually above 50mm. Able to isolate small parts to focus from far away.


"Depth of field" is very shallow/narrow/small.


The space looks very squished/flat. (ex: running fast but looks like there's no progress)

Depth of field

Area in focus

Camera lens: Wide lens

Less than 50 mm.


Exaggerates space (ex: hallway looks much longer than in reality).


Depth of field is deeper, more things are in focus.

Camera lens: Normal lens

About 50mm.

Camera movement: Pan and Tilt

Pan: stays on fixed point but moves left and right.

Tilt moves up and down.


Camera movement: Dolly vs. Tracking Shot

Tracking shot follows the movement (camera on track).


Dolly shot: camera moves through space, towards actor.

Camera movement: Crane/boom shot

Camera, not only moves laterally, but through the space (up in the air). Least like our (human) experience, often used for "out of body" experience.

Camera movement: Steadicam shot

May not be able to put tracks down and don't want to use handheld cam. Camera strapped o to cameraman so you can follow movement smoothly.

Camera movement: Dolly vs. Zoom

Dolly: physically move through space to get closer. Zoom: magnifying into the picture.

Camera movement: Motion parallax

Relationship of things in camera frame changes.

Camera movement: Perceptual transformation

Director has choice on where the focus is. Camera shows things differently than reality and camera has selectivity that human eye doesn't. (ex: focus/cuts).

Camera movement: Perceptual correspondence

How films correspond/reference our reality. (Ex: reading someone's emotion on their face, or lighting, shadow and color).

Charlie Chaplin

"The Kid"


-known for playing a consistent character: "a tramp" or "con artist".


-his costume and mustache are classic/familiar.


-loved internationally because film = silent and physical comedy so anyone can watch and understand.


-through "tramp" character, helped expose social injustice.

Harold Lloyd

"Safety last"


-Unlike Charlie Chaplin, most of his films were purely for entertainment. Not really any underlying message.


-Consistent character: "glasses character" "good boy" who just gets into bad scenarios.

Buster Keaton

"The General"


-Consistent character: "the great stone face"


-Many complicated stunts.

Director

Responsible for working with actors and has final say of all judgements. Works closely with cinematographer.

Cinematographer

Only concerned with the look of the film.

"Mise-en-scene"

All the elements in front of the camera (excluding sound)..Including lighting, costumes, make up, set.


-The overall visual design of the film.


-Responsible for choosing film stock, aspect ratio, lenses, camera position, lighting and color.

Film stock

actual material of film (b&w, tinted..)

Aspect ratio

Height and width of the film. In 1930-40s, academy ratio (1.33:1). In 1950s, intro to widescreen ratios (1.85:1 & 12.35:1)

Stylistic conventions

"Real" can be based on how past films have represented different worlds/genres/time periods.


Ex: movies that are based on the future usually has monotonous colors, bright. Old movies (50s) thought to be in b&w.

3 pt lighting

Most basic lighting set up.


Key light: main source of lighting within the scene.


Fill light: fills in shadows or gives even tones.


Back light: separate the person from background.

2 types of lighting set ups: high key vs. low key.

High key: very bright, even lighting. seen in many comedies, sitcoms and musicals.


Low key: high contrast. lots of shadows. seen in film noir, horror movies..

Realistic lighting design

Suggests real lighting sources. Practical lights and exposure lights. Suggests a real environment.

Pictoral lighting design

Thematic symbolism.


May not necessarily be concerned with source simulation. (Not concerned with whether source of light is realistic).

German Expressionism (1919-1926)

During WWI, german government supported German film makers to support propaganda. But even after the war, film industry still thrived.

Expressionist

-Appeared during German Expressionism


-Capturing emotions on to painting.


Ex: of painters...water lilies of Monet and Starry Night by Van Gogh.

"Cabinet of Dr. Caligari"

-German Expressionism


-Directed by Robert Wiene


-Extreme stylization, sets define inner psychology of characters, "scary dr.seuss book", distorted shapes, make up, and performance.

"Nosferatu"

-German Expressionism


-Directed by F.W. Murnau


-adaptation of Bram Stoker's Dracula


-high contrast, lots of shadows, low angles.

"Metropolis"

-German Expressionism


-Directed by Fritz Lang.


-Epic visuals, dehumanized workers: part of the rigid design of cities and machines.

Editing

Independent shots put together can give emotion/change meaning.


-Ex: Lev Kuleshove used shot of same face but paired it with 3 different shots and viewers saw emotion on the face each time despite the same faces.

Linear editing system

Celluloid. Physically have to put film next to each other.

Nonlinear editing system

Computer editing.

Montage

Quick, disconnected images that are linked to express passage of time or a larger event.

Transitions: Straight cut

Directly cutting out from one shot to another

Transitions: Fade in/out

Shot gradually goes back or gradually image comes up.

Transitions: Iris

A black mass and circle closes up/opens out

Transitions: Dissolve

Like fade, but goes from 1 shot to another.

Editor works to...

-Create continuity


-for the dramatic focus of scene


-For the tempo/rhythm/mood of scene.


-To control the narration and pov.

Continuity: Master shot

An establishing shot. Usually a shot of entire scene so you can see where the characters are.

Continuity: Match cut

Have a shot then were you cut into a tighter shot. Creates illusion that no time has passed.

Continuity: Match on action

Start action in 1 shot, finish that action in 2nd shot. Illusion that everything's happening at the same time.

Continuity: Eyeline match

Character's gaze let's you know formation of room/where another character might be.


-Ex: Character looking at waitress (out of shot) in left, so we know she's at the left side of the room.

Continuity: Shot-Rev-Shot

Usually used to visualize dialogue

Continuity: 180 rule

Imaginary line that camera doesn't cross over.

Jump cut

Take a shot and you are cutting to different actions... could cut out tiny bits of it, so the scene may look jumpy/disconnected.

Parallel Action

Use cross-cutting. Give an impression that events are happening at the same time.

Long take/sequence shot

Long take: An uninterrupted shot in a film which lasts much longer than the conventional editing pace either of the film itself or of films in general, usually lasting several minutes.


Sequence shot: Long take that constitutes an entire scene.

Soviet Montage

In 1918 after Russian Revolution.


Russian government put strict controls on film and equipment.

Lev Kuleshov

-Soviet Montage


-Founded state school of cinematic art


-Because of film shortages, edited film from diff sources (ex: the same face shot) to create continuity.

Sergei Eisenstein

-Soviet Montage


-Engineer


-Property of montage (conflict of images creates response)


-"Battleship Potemkin" -portrayed utter chaos/hysteria. No specific sounds except music.

Deiga Vertov

"Man with a movie Camera"


-Self-reflexive


-Lexicon of cinematic techniques

Main kinds of sound

Dialogue, sound effects, music

Diagetic sound vs. Non-diagetic sound

Diagetic: sound characters can hear/sound of that world.


Non-diagetic: sounds characters can't hear (ex: soundtrack, narrators...)

Sound heirarchy

What sounds are given the most priority.


Usually dialogue is given priority, but not always.

Sound perspective

How sound conveys 3D space. Ex: hearing footsteps get quieter as someone walks away.

Sound bridge

any sound that links to shots together or carries over 2 or more shots

Types of dialogue

speech, voice over, ADR (automated dialogue replacement)

ADR (automated dialogue replacement)

~30% of dialogue is ADR.


-Audio recorded in studio out of scene.


-Sometimes because sound wasn't good or if they want to add lines (and not facing character).

Sound effects

Physical non-speech sound.



Ambiant sound effects

Within the world of film, captured on set.

Foley sound

sounds that are added on film in separate studio

Purpose of music

1) setting the scene (location, culture), 2) adds emotional meaning, and 3) creates pacing/tempo

"Jazz Singer" (1927)

First feature film with sync dialogue.


Starring Al Jolson.


Had sound for singing scene, then back to word cards for dialogue.

Why was sound initially a setback for Hollywood?

-Cameras placed inside soundproof booths


-Limited camera movement


-Mic didn't move (limited actor movement)


-Infrequent cuts (difficult to break soundtrack)

Musical (movies)

Possible only with introduction of sound.

Warner brothers produced many successful musicals.


-"Gold Diggers of 1933" (1933)



"Modern Times" (1936)

Directed by & starring Charlie Chaplin.


-Wide appeal all over the world because his comedy was body language and slapstick.


-Held off on making a sound as long as possible.


-Sings a nonsense song

Narrative

How story unfolds and how viewer interprets it. (Curiosity, surprise, suspense).

Why were narratives more popular in early 1900s?

From a production point, documentaries were hostage to events while narrative films could meet demand for newer/more films.

Parts of narratives integral to our understanding: Fictive stance

Make believe and just a story.


Audience enters into agreement with filmmaker/storyteller.


Know that the plot is not real, but for sake of movie, suspend disbelief

Parts of narratives integral to our understanding: Plots and story

Plot: arrangement of events in film


-not all events are included in plot...may just be implied or not included.


Story: entire sequence of events. Proper chronology of events.


*ex: say there's a movie where main character= 40 year old man who's a lawyer who defends criminals. Someone asks why. May not show in the movie but he says that because his dad was wrongfully sent to prison.

Parts of narratives integral to our understanding: Narrator

POV and story knowledge.

POV: subjective vs implicit 1st person

Subjective: view from main character. see as closely as to what character would be seeing.


Implicit 1st person: not literal pov, but other elements (like emotional, psychological) imply it's main character's pov (3rd person camera positions)

Main line of action in classical hollywood narratives

1)where main character is pursuing a goal 2) character confronts obstacles to reach that goal and 3) in conclusion, main character succeeds/fails.

Explicit causality vs. implicit causality

Explicit causality: clear cause and effect of event.


Implicit: less linear and connected consequences.

Cape Fear (1962)

Directed by J. Lee Thompson.


Stars Gregory Peck and Robert Mitchum.


At that time, there was the introduction of "Hays Code"

"Hays Code"

By Will Hays.


Code formed to regulate movies and explicit material they show.


Ex: "No picture could lower moral standards of audience."

Cape Fear (1991)

Directed by Martin Scorsese


-Many of his themes are based/shine light on Italian-American culture, and on religion.


-Known for violence/crime series.


-Lots of influence from Italian Neorealism.

Genre

Different styles and techniques used in film.


A category of film that follows a set of visual narrative patterns.


Each genre has its own conventions (what can/can't happen within that genre).

Types of Genres: Westerns

Primarily between civil war and WWII.


Major theme: violence/wilderness vs. community.


-Ex: bad/good guy rolls through town, causes some sort of trouble.

Types of Genres: Gangster

Usually the rise and fall of a career criminal.


Demystification of the "Horatio Alger" myth. (Story of immigrant who comes from nothing and builds his way up).


*Demystification in that these movies usually show immigrants who have lots of disadvantage because of being an immigrant, so the only way to be on top is to steal/kill/go against the rules.

Types of Genres: Musicals

Expresses optimism and innocence. Use of poetry, image, and sound.


Genres allow viewers to anticipate certain outcomes.


Filmmakers can achieve highly concentrated meaning (they convey certain messages by breaking away from conventional concepts).

French New Wave

Started in mid 50s with Andre Bazin. Founded magazine "Camiers du Cinema" (notebooks of cinema)


-Magazine championed Hollywood directors who weren't given lots of credit at the time.


-Said that films were just as important as books.


-When writers for the magazine became directors themselves, it was the start of the French New Wave.

Auteur Theory

-Came out of French New Wave


-Director puts signature on a film...so treats film very much like art.

"Breathless" (1959)

Directed by Jean-WC Godard


More emphasis on "regular" / "normal" life.


Not cutting as much, more continuous.


Part of French New Wave.

"400 Blows" (1959)

Directed by Francois Truffait


No studio (which was something that French New Wave did a lot).


Once again, few cuts.


Authentic, less scripted.


Part of French New Wave.

"Last Year at Marienbad" (1961)

Dir. by Alain Renais


Over-the-top setting


Fluidity like a dream (kind of jumps around/repeats scenes)


Music = very creepy.


Part of French New Wave.

Major film companies

Sony/Columbia Pictures


WB


Disney


Universal




These companies are in charge of funding theproduction, marketing and distribution. Usually fund blockbuster films.

Gross- "Box Office Revenue"

Not necessarily how much the studio made.

Have to keep in mind the "cost"


Negative cost

Expense of production

Rental

Actual profit after all expenses

Box Office Dollar

20% goes back to ads


25% to distribution


15% for profit participants (actors/directs)


10% theater expenses


10% theater profits (theaters make most money on concessions)


20% rental return to studio

Ancillary Markets

Non-theatrical markets (like TV, DVD, Netflix)

Product tie-in

The merchandise sold outside of the movie (ex: action figure from movie in happy meal toy)

Independent Film studios

Ex: fox searchlight, paramount classics, Miramax.


Production cost is lower. Not distributed as widely. Can be costly and can still have famous actors. Independent distributors put more films into circulation.

Italian Neorealism

During Fascist dictatorship of Mussolini. Italian film industry produced "White Telephone" films that projected society as glamorous, opulent settings (yachts, mansions..etc)



"Obsessions" (1943)

Italian Neorealism.


Dir. Lucino Visconti


Set with ordinary people in natural environments.

"Rome Open City" (1945)

Italian Neorealism.


Italian resistance during Nazi occupation of Rome. Nearly documentary feel. Becomes part of INR aesthetic.

"Bicycle Thieves" (1948)

Italian Neorealism.


Dir. Vittorio De Sica


Simple story of poverty in post-war Italy.


Key roles played by non-actors.


Heartbreaking in realism.

"Rashomon"

Japanese Cinema.


Dir. Akira Kurosawa (Brought a lot of attention to Japanese style film).


Movie about murder and 3 different perspectives on it. Very simple, visual story. Almost like a silent film. Music plays a big role.


Film brought Japanese cinema to the attention of the western world.

"Ugetsu"

Japanese Cinema.


Dir. Kenji Mizoguchi


Favored long takes, visualizing spirituality.


Painterly mise-en-scene.

"Tokyo Story"

Japanese Cinema.


Directed by Yasujiro Ozu.


Camera style = very low angles.


About an elderly couple who visits their children. About generations clashing.


Highly symmetrical, very structured, long shots. Setting = spacious.


Visual economy/haiku.


Off-screen space = sometimes shots have people walking in from an assumed space.

Film Theory: Auteurist Model of Theory

Started in French New Wave.


Auteurist critic looks at a director's cinematic technique, stories, and themes.


Argue that their films embody an artistic vision.


Recognizable style from film to film.

Film Theory: Realist Theory

Recording reality vs. power to transform reality.


They want to know how real/truthful is what we're watching?


Ex: Andre Bazin


Long takes, deep focus. Allows for audience to choose what to focus on within the shot. Elicit a variety of responses from the audience.

Film Theory: Ideological Film Theory

Connections between movies and society and how do films portray society?


First vs. second order levels: first = explicit critique/comment on society, second = more implicit.

Difference of Documentaries from other films

-A subject exists prior to the film.


-Absence of fictional elements.


-Usually no actors.


-No invented chronology/narrative structure.

Similarities of documentaries and other films

Editing, storytelling, camera placement

Documentaries: Direct Cinema

Minimizes the filmmaker's over-manipulation of material.

Documentaries: Visual Poetry documentaries

Usually nature documentaries. Not much of a storyline, mostly just capturing the beauty of nature.

Documentaries: Structural/formal choice

Transform the raw material

"Sound of Music" (1965)

How "real" is a documentary if filmmaker has to manipulate footage.


Highest grossing movie in cinema history.


In 1960s, expensive studio pictures started to fail.


Dir. Robert Wise

"Shadows" (1958)

Dir. John Cassavetes


Actor turned director.


Kind of started the "independent films" movement before it was a thing.


Low budget films, shot on-location, highly personal...movies were for himself, not for profit.


He was an autear...directed, edited, wrote, and worked the camera for the film.

"Bonnie and Clyde" (1967) & "Easy Rider" (1969)

Dir. Arthur Penn & Dennis Hopper (respectively)


Counter-culture...


Dissatisfaction with American society


Aimed towards youth.

"Midnight Cowboy" (1969)

Dir. John Schlessinger


Rated X (not the same rating as it is now, it's not a porn movie).


Uncommon candor toward sex and fringe society.


Dude moves from Texas to become a male prostitute.

"Do the Right Thing" (1989)

Dir. Spike Lee


Focus on African-American life.


First-order ideology.


Whole movie takes place in one day on one street, but focuses on numerous characters.