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31 Cards in this Set

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A narrative in which abstract ideas figure as circumstances of persons, usually to enforce a moral truth.
For example, Fama in Aeneid 4.173-97
Repetition of the same sound, usually initial, in two or more words. This term normally applies to consonants and accented initial vowels
For example, ut te postremo donarem munere mortis/et mutam nequiquam adloquerer cinerem, Catullus 101.3-4
Repetition of a word, usually at the beginning of successive clauses or phrases, for emphasis or for pathetic effect.
For example, Nec silicum venae, nec durum in pectore ferrum, nec tibi simplicitas ordine maior adest, Ovid, Amores 1.119-10
An abrupt failure to complete a sentence, for rhetorical effect.
For example, Quos ego - !, Aeneid 1.135
Address of an absent person or an abstraction, usually for pathetic effect.
For example, O terque quaterque beati, Aeneid 1.94
The close recurrence of similar sounding words, usually used of vowel sounds (kind of like alliteration of vowels).
For example, amissos longo socios sermone requirunt, Aeneid 1.217
Omission of conjunctions in a closely related series.
For example, saevus ubi Aecidae telo iacet Hector, ubi ingens/ Ssarpedon, ubi tot Simois correpta sub undis/ scuta virum... Aeneid 1. 99-100
Arrangement of words, usually adjectives and nouns, in the pattern A B B A.
For example, innumeris tumidum Pythona sagittis, Ovid, Met. 1.460 (adjective A ablative, adjective B accusative, noun B accusative, noun a ablative).
An apparent digression describing a place, connected at the end of the description to the main narrative by hic or huc.
For example, est locus...Aeneid 1.59-70. This device is used in epic for a transition to a new scene.
Omission of one or more words necessary to the sense.
For example, Haec secum [dixit], Aeneid 1.37
The running over of a sentence from one verse or couplet into another so that closely related words fall in different lines.
For example, ...daret ut catenis Fatale monstrum, Horace, Odes 1.37.20-21. Here the words Fatale monstrum, the object of daret, spill into the next stanza.
Use of two nouns connected by a conjunction with the meaning of one modified noun.
For example, molemque et montes, Aeneid 1.61
Exaggeration for effect.
For example, terram inter fluctus aperit, Aeneid 1.107
Interlocking Order or Synchesis
Arrangement of pairs of words so that one word of each pair is between the words of the other (A B A B). This arrangement normally emphasizes the close association of the pairs.
For example, saevae memorem Junonis ob iram, Aeneid 1.4
The use, clearly intention or apparently unintentional (dramatic irony), of words with a meaning contrary to the situation.
For example, Iunone secunda, Aeneid 4.45 (unintentional); scilicet is superis labor est, Aeneid 4.379 (intentional).
An understatement for emphasis, usually an assertion of something by denying the opposite.
For example, Salve, nec minimo puella naso, Catullus 43.1
An implied comparison, that is, the use of a word or words suggesting a likeness between what is actually being described and something else.
For example, remigio alarum, Aeneid 1.301.
Use of one noun in place of another closely related noun, to avoid common or prosaic words. Often gods' names for what they are gods of: eating Ceres, drinking Bacchus
For example, Cererem corruptam undis, Aeneid 1.177
Use of words whose wound suggests the sense.
For example, magno cum murmure montis, Aeneid 1.55
The use of apparently contradictory words in the same phrase. This figure is particularly Horatian.
For example, insanientis dum sapientiae, Odes 1.34.2
Treatment of inanimate objects as human.
For example, Phaselus ille, quem videtis, hospites,/ ait fuisse navium celerrimus, Catullus 4.1.2
Use of unnecessary words.
For example, mortales visus...reliquit,/ et procul in tenuem ex oculis evanuit auram, Aeneid 4.277-78
Use of unnecessary conjunctions.
For example, Eurusque Notusque ruunt creberque.../Africus, Aeneid 1.85-86
Claiming to not mention or "pass over" something that one plans to say.
For example, Obliviscor iniurias tuas, Clodia, depono memoriam doloris mei; quae abs te crudeliter in meos me absente facta sunt Caelio, 50
Use of a word before it is appropriate in the context. A proleptic adjective does not apply to its noun until after the action of the verb. It is often best translated with a clause or phrase, to bring out the emphasis on the adjective.
For example, submersasque obrue puppes, Aeneid 1.69
The assumption of another's persona for rhetorical or dramatic effect.
For example, Nihil iam in istam mulierem dico; sed, si esset aliqua dissimilis istius quae se ominibus pervolgaret, quae haberet palamdecretum semper aliquem, cuius in hortos, domum, Baias iure suo libidines omnium commerent, quae........
An expressed comparison, introduced by a word such as similis, qualis, or velut.
For example, velut agmine facto, Aeneid 1.82. Epic similes tend to be long, to relate to nature, and to digress from the point(s) of comparison.
Use of part for the whole to avoid common words or to focus attention a particular part.
For example, rotis (for curru), Ovid, Amores, 1.2.42
Separation of the parts of a compound word, usually for metrical convenience.
For example, circum dea fudit, Aeneid 1.412
Transferred Epithet
A device of emphasis in which the poet attributes some characteristic of a thing to another thing closely associated with it.
For example, templumque vetustum desertae/Cereris, Aeneid 2.713-14
Tricolon Crescens
A three-part increase of emphasis or enlargement of meaning.
For example, Q. Metelli matrimonium...clarissimi ac fortissimi viri patriaque amantissimi Caelio 34.