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42 Cards in this Set

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What did the Nuclear Non-Proliferation make countries with nuclear weapons agree to?
Not give any other countries nuclear weapons- helps stop the spread of nuclear weapons.
What does SALT stand for?
Strategic Arms Limitations Talks.
When did SALT 1 talks begin and end?
1969 with Nixon; Ended with signing of treaty in 1972.
What did SALT 1 do?
Place a limit on the number of ICBMs allowed, only 2 anti-ballistic systems allowed, froze arms race.
What happened between China and the USA in 1971?
'Ping-Pong diplomacy'- improved relations. US dropped its veto for China to join UN (joins in '71).
What accelerated SALT 1 talks?
Nixon's visit to China in 1972.
When did Nixon visit chairman Mao in China?
1972.
Why were talks SALT 1 talks delayed in starting?
The Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968.
Why was SALT 1 good for USSR?
Needed to save money, desperately!
When was the Helsinki agreement?
1975.
What did the Helsinki agreement state?

1) West must recognise Eastern Europe frontiers and Soviet 'sphere of influence.


2) Soviets agreed to buy US grain+ export oil to them.


3) USSR promised to respect human rights.

What does détente mean?
The easing of strained relations.
When was the joint space mission Apollo-Soyuz?
1975.
When did Carter become president?
1977, replaces Nixon.
What was difference between Carter and Nixon?
Carter was much less hard-line to begin with, Congress thought SALT 2 was too nice.
What caused the official end to détente?
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
What did the USSR do in 1977 which started causing suspicions in the USA?
Replacing their out-of-date ICBMS with SS-20s.
How did Carter react to the new SS-20s in Europe?
Introduced Pershing-II missiles in 1979 and developed the Cruise missiles- couldn't be detected on radar.
What did SALT 2 make both sides agree to?

1) Upper limit of 2500 missiles.


2) Limit on other weapons e.g. bombers.


3) Testing and inspections to ensure each side was complying.

When was the war in Afghanistan?
1979-1989.
What did the Mujahidin disagree with in Afghanistan in 1978?
The reforms by the leader of the PDPA, Amin. Went against Muslim laws e.g. emancipation of women, new marriage laws, distribution of land.
What did the Mujahidin want to do in 1979?
Set up an Islamic State, like in Iran.
Why was Brezhnev worried about the Mujahidin?
Might spark off the 30 million Muslims in the USSR to protest against government/rebel (Iran already Islamic State).
Technically, the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan was following...
The Brezhnev Doctrine- 'right and duty' to invade nay country where Communism was being threatened, Afghanistan threatening Communism on USSR's borders.
What were alternative reasons why the USSR invaded Afghanistan?
To keep supply route to the oil-rich Persian Gulf free; Fight off US secret involvement- been giving money to Mujahidin for 6 months; Expand its influence; Afraid Amin was too close w/ West+ eliminating Soviet supporters in gov.
What was the reaction of President Jimmy Carter to the invasion of Afghanistan?
Immediately condemned it, saying threat to world peace, would have to pay the consequences for their actions.
In January 1980, the General Council of the UN voted...
104 to 18 in favour of condemning the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan.
What was the primary reason Brezhnev stated he went to war in Afghanistan?
To protect the USSR from a Muslim uprising.
Where did Carter send a US force to after the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan?
The Arabian Sea- to protect the oil routes, stating the US would resist any attempt bu an opposing force to gain control of the Persian Gulf (Carter Doctrine).
What was suspended after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan?
Trade between the USA and the USSR on goods such as grain and technology.
What did Jimmy Carter advise Congress NOT to do after the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan?
Ratify the SALT 2 agreement.
What did the Americans publically do to show their opposition to the Afghan war?
Boycott the Moscow Olympics, along with 60 other nations.
What type of warfare was used in the Afghan war?
Guerrilla tactics.
What did the Soviets initially capture in the Afghan war?
The airport at Kabul- enabling troops to be airlifted into Afghanistan.
Who did the Soviets assassinate and replace with Karmal in 1979?
President Amin.
How much of Afghanistan did the Mujahidin control?
80%.
Afghans felt...
Great nationalism.
How much money did the Mujahidin receive from the US and Osama bin Laden each year?
$600 million.
What did the US give the Mujahidin to destroy Soviet helicopters?
American Stinger anti-aircraft missiles- destroyed 333 Soviet helicopters.
What year did the USSR start looking for a way out?
1982!
How many Soviet troops died?
15,000.
How much did the Afghan war cost the Soviets?
$20 billion.