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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Causes of clubbing?
Cardiac: chronic hypoxia, congenital cyanotic heart disease, SBE, atrial myoxma
Respiratory: Non small cell lung cancer, interstitial lung disease, TB, suppurative lung disease, mesothelioma, cystic fibrosis
GIT: malabsorption, IBD, cirrhosis
Other: Grave's disease
Pulsus alternans?
Alternate strong and weak pulses in a basically regular pulse
Sign of severely impaired LV function
Characteristics of JVP?
Double impulse
Falls with inspiration, rises with expiration
Not palpable
Can be occluded by gentle finger pressure
Varies with lifting up or lying down
Increases with hepatojugular reflux
Causes of an elevated JVP?
Right ventricular infarction
Pulmonary HTN
SVC compression
tricuspid stenosis
Tricuspid regurgitation
Reduced RV compliance
Repicardial constriction/tamponade
Kussmaul's sign?
JVP elevates with inspiration:
- constrictive pericarditis
- right ventricular infarction
Components of JVP?
a wave: atrial contraction
x descent: atrial relaxation and RV systole
c wave: transmitted carotid pulsation
v wave: passive filling of atrium
y descent: opening of tricuspid valve
Can be normal
Dilated LV with reduced compliance or when there is filling of the LV, such as in severe mitral regurgitation
Powerful atrial contraction secondary to ventricular dysfunction or hypertrophy
Murmur of mitral stenosis?
Low-pitched rumbling diastolic murmur accentuated by exercise
Murmur or mitral regurgitation?
Pansystolic murmur maximal at the apex and radiating towards the axilla
Aortic stenosis murmur?
Harsh mid-systolic ejection murmur maximal over aortic area and radiating to carotids.
Loudest with patient sitting up and in full expiration
Aortic regurg murmur?
Decrescendo high-pitched diastolic murmur
Symptoms of mitral stenosis?
Dyspnoea, orthopnoea, PND, haemoptysis, ascites, oedema, fatigue