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37 Cards in this Set

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Personality Psychologists

could study the traits that might make one person more likely than another to speak, and

Social Psychologists

might examine aspects of the classroom situation that would influence any student’s decision about speaking.

Attribution

a conclusion about the cause of an observed behavior/even

Attribution Theory

We explain others’ behavior with two types of attributions:

Situational Attribution

Situational Attribution (factors outside the person doing the action, such as peer pressure),

Dispositional Attribution

(the person’s stable, enduring traits, personality, ability, emotions)

The Fundamental Attribution Error

When we go too far in assuming that a person’s behavior is caused by their personality.

collectivist cultures

(those which emphasize group unity, allegiance, and purpose over the wishes of the individual), do not make the same kinds of attributions:




The behavior of others is attributed more to the situation; also, Credit for successes is given more to others,Blame for failures is taken on oneself.

Attitude

Attitude:Feelings, ideas, and beliefs that affect how we approach and react to other people, objects, and events.

Central Route Persuasion

Going directly through the rational mind, influencing attitudes with evidence and logic.




“My product has been proven more effective.”

Peripheral Route Persuasion

Changing attitudes by going around the rational mind and appealing to fears, desires, associations.


“People who buy my product are happy, attractive!”

Three social-cognitive mechanisms:

The Foot in the Door Phenomenon


The Effects of Playing a Role


Cognitive Dissonance

The Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon:

the tendency to be more likely to agree to a large request after agreeing to a small one.

Cognitive Dissonance

When our actions are not in harmony with our attitudes.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

The observation that we tend to resolve this dissonance by changing our attitudes to fit

Conformity

refers to adjusting our behavior or thinking to fit in with a group standard.

Automatic Mimicry

Contagious Yawning, as well as contagious arm folding, hand wringing, face rubbing…


Adopting regional accents, grammar, and vocabulary


Empathetic shifts in mood that fit the mood of the people around us


Adopting coping styles of parents or peers, including violence, yelling, withdrawal.

a social norm

(a “correct” or “normal” way to behave or think in this group)

What are the two types of social influce

Normative Social Influence: example: Going along with others in pursuit of social approval or belonging (and to avoid disapproval/rejection)The Asch conformity studies; clothing choices.


informational Social Influence: Example: Going along with others because their ideas and behavior make sense, the evidence in our social environment changes our minds.Deciding which side of the road to drive on.

Social Facilitation

Individual performance is intensified when you are observed by others. Experts excel, people doing simple activities show more speed and endurance in front of an audience… but novices, trying complex skills, do worse.

Social Loafing

Social Loafing: the tendency of people in a group to show less effort when not held individually accountable.

Deindividuation

Loss of self-awareness and self-restraint.

Group Polarization

When people of similar views form a group together, discussion within the group makes their views more extreme.

Groupthink

in pursuit of social harmony (and avoidance of open disagreement), groups will make decisions without an open exchange of ideas.

Social Inequality

Social Inequality, when some groups have fewer resources and opportunities than others:

ingroup bias

(favoring one’s own group), misjudging other groups, and quickly categorizing

Scapegoat Theory

Scapegoat Theory: The observation that, when bad things happen, prejudice offers an outlet for anger by finding someone to blame.

Other-race effect:

Other-race effect: We tend to see uniformity in the appearance of other groups, and may assume other similarities such as traits;

The Just-World Fallacy

The Just-World Fallacy: Believing that Justice generally happens, that people get the benefits and punishments they deserve.

Social Scripts

Social Scripts: Culturally constructed directions on how to act, downloaded from media as a “file” or “program” in the mind.

he Mere Exposure Effect

he Mere Exposure Effect: Merely seeing someone’s face and name makes them more likeable. Your are more likely to develop attraction to someone you’ve seen a lot.

Passionate Love

Passionate Love A state of strong attraction, interest, excitement, felt so strongly that people are absorbed in each other

Compassionate Love

Compassionate Love Deep, caring, affectionate attachment/commitment

Bystander Effect

Bystander Effect: Fewer people help when others are available.

diffusion of responsibility:

: The role of helper does not fall just on one person.

Social Traps

Social Traps: Situations in which pursuing self-interest makes things worse for everyone: e.g. an arms race, or overfishing [Flip side: these are situations in which cooperation pays off.]

Mirror Image Perceptions

Mirror Image Perceptions: Both sides assuming the worst in the other person, “they’ll just reject me” or “they don’t want peace.” [Solution: take the first step in trusting]