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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Connective Tissue Types

Proper and Specialized

Proper connec tissue

Dense or Loose

Loose Proper

Superficial fascia



Dense Proper

Ligaments


Tendons


Deep Fascia

Specialized Connect Tissue

Bones


Cartilage

Cartilage Types

Hyaline


Fibrocarilage

4 stages of bone breakage

1. Reactive phase: blood vessels damaged and bleed


2. Fibrocartilaginous callus formation: fibrocartilage callus forms3


3. Bony Callus Formation: Fibrous tissue replaced by bony callus


4. Remodeling phase: lump from excess osteocytes is remodeled and reformed

Types of Synarthroses joints

1. Fibrous Joints


2. Cartiliginous joints



Synarthroses joints: Fibrous

- suture


- gomphosis


- syndesmosis: btwn fib and tib

Synarthroses joints: Cartiliginous

- symphysis: pubic bone and vertebrae


- synchondrosis: costochondral

Diarthroses Uniaxial

- hinge: humeroulna


- pivot: atlantoaxial

Diarthroses Biaxial

- Saddle: only 1: carpometacarpal jt


- condyloid: metacapal phalagneal joint

Diarthroses triaxial

- plane: btween small segments of bone: ex. acromioclavicular jt


- ball + socket: Hip and glenohumeral jt of shoulder



Cells of CNS

Gray Matter

Axons of CNS

White matter

Cells of PNS

ganglia

Axons of PNS

nerves

conus medullaris

cone shape at end of spinal cord

filum terminale

formed by the pia, exits through the sacral hiatus

cauda equina

formed by the nerves that extend after end of spinal cord

2 groups of ligaments

3 intersegmental (up and down)


3 intrasegmental (connect adjacent vert)

3 intersegmental

- anterior longitudinal: from sacrum to C2 --> Atlantoaxial ligament


- posterior longitudinal: from sacrum to C2 --> tectorial membrane


- Supraspinous: Tips of spines of vertbrae from sacrum to C7 --> ligametum nuchae

3 intrasegmental

- ligamentum flavum: elastic fibers connect adjacent laminae


- interspinous: between spines


- inertransverse: between transverse processes

Superficial Layer of the Superficial back

- trapezius


- latissimus dorsi

Deep layer of superficial back

- Levator scapulae


- rhomboids

Intermediate back

- serratus posterior (superior and inferior)



Superficial Layer of the Deep back

- splenius capitus (skull)


- slenius cervicus (neck)


- Errector spinae group:


- Spinalis TCC


- Longissimus TCC


- iliocostalis TCL


- Fibers travel superolaterally

Transversospinalis layer of the Deep back

- semispinales (X4-6) TCC


- multifidis (X2-4) L


- rotatores(X1-2) T


- Fibers travel superomedially

Segmental Layer of the Deep Back

- interspinales CL


- intratransversarii CL

Triangle of Ausculation (action and borders)

- protract scapula

- listen to heart and lungs between 6th and 7th rib


- Borders:


superior: Trapezius


Lateral: Medial border of scapula


Inferior: lats


Axilla area (borders)

- apex: where first rib crosses clavicle


- Base: skin of armpit


- anterior: pec major and minor


- Posterior: scapula and subscapularis muscle


- Medial: serratus anterior


- Lateral: proximal humerus

Axilla area (contents)

- axillary artery and vein


- brachial plexus (cords)


- Fatty tissue


- Lymph nodes

Where do the parts of the brachial plexus begin?

Roots: Vertebrae


Trunks: At rib 1


Divisions: At clavicles


Cords: Infraclavicular branches off cords


Terminal Nerves: MAMRU

Erb's/ Knapsack Palsy


What is it, symptoms

- irritation of upper brachial plexus roots


- C5, C6, (C7)


- from side of neck too stretched


Symptoms:


- "Waiter's tip position"


Droop shoulder


arm internally rotates


Elevation and retraction of scapula affected




Cutaneous:


- lateral upper arm (axillary)


- lateral antebrachial (musculocutaneous)

Klumpke's Palsy

- irritation of lower brachial plexus roots


- (C7), C8, T1


- pulling on arm


Symptoms:


"Claw Hand"


Hyper extended metacarpal phangeal joint


Flexed interphalangeal joint


Abducted thumb




Cutaneous:


- medial arm and forearm (medial Cord)

What are the joints between vertebral bodies

- sympysis joint (cartilaginous)


- intervertebral discs (Shock absorbers)

2 aspects of intervertebral discs

- annulus fibrosus


- nucleus pulposus

Shunt Action

Origin near joint


Insertion far from joint




Helps to stabilize joint


ex. brachio-radialis

Spurt action

Origin far from joint


Insertion close to joint




More movement


ex. Brachialis