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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Connective Tissue Types

Proper and Specialized

Proper connec tissue

Dense or Loose

Loose Proper

Superficial fascia

Dense Proper



Deep Fascia

Specialized Connect Tissue



Cartilage Types



4 stages of bone breakage

1. Reactive phase: blood vessels damaged and bleed

2. Fibrocartilaginous callus formation: fibrocartilage callus forms3

3. Bony Callus Formation: Fibrous tissue replaced by bony callus

4. Remodeling phase: lump from excess osteocytes is remodeled and reformed

Types of Synarthroses joints

1. Fibrous Joints

2. Cartiliginous joints

Synarthroses joints: Fibrous

- suture

- gomphosis

- syndesmosis: btwn fib and tib

Synarthroses joints: Cartiliginous

- symphysis: pubic bone and vertebrae

- synchondrosis: costochondral

Diarthroses Uniaxial

- hinge: humeroulna

- pivot: atlantoaxial

Diarthroses Biaxial

- Saddle: only 1: carpometacarpal jt

- condyloid: metacapal phalagneal joint

Diarthroses triaxial

- plane: btween small segments of bone: ex. acromioclavicular jt

- ball + socket: Hip and glenohumeral jt of shoulder

Cells of CNS

Gray Matter

Axons of CNS

White matter

Cells of PNS


Axons of PNS


conus medullaris

cone shape at end of spinal cord

filum terminale

formed by the pia, exits through the sacral hiatus

cauda equina

formed by the nerves that extend after end of spinal cord

2 groups of ligaments

3 intersegmental (up and down)

3 intrasegmental (connect adjacent vert)

3 intersegmental

- anterior longitudinal: from sacrum to C2 --> Atlantoaxial ligament

- posterior longitudinal: from sacrum to C2 --> tectorial membrane

- Supraspinous: Tips of spines of vertbrae from sacrum to C7 --> ligametum nuchae

3 intrasegmental

- ligamentum flavum: elastic fibers connect adjacent laminae

- interspinous: between spines

- inertransverse: between transverse processes

Superficial Layer of the Superficial back

- trapezius

- latissimus dorsi

Deep layer of superficial back

- Levator scapulae

- rhomboids

Intermediate back

- serratus posterior (superior and inferior)

Superficial Layer of the Deep back

- splenius capitus (skull)

- slenius cervicus (neck)

- Errector spinae group:

- Spinalis TCC

- Longissimus TCC

- iliocostalis TCL

- Fibers travel superolaterally

Transversospinalis layer of the Deep back

- semispinales (X4-6) TCC

- multifidis (X2-4) L

- rotatores(X1-2) T

- Fibers travel superomedially

Segmental Layer of the Deep Back

- interspinales CL

- intratransversarii CL

Triangle of Ausculation (action and borders)

- protract scapula

- listen to heart and lungs between 6th and 7th rib

- Borders:

superior: Trapezius

Lateral: Medial border of scapula

Inferior: lats

Axilla area (borders)

- apex: where first rib crosses clavicle

- Base: skin of armpit

- anterior: pec major and minor

- Posterior: scapula and subscapularis muscle

- Medial: serratus anterior

- Lateral: proximal humerus

Axilla area (contents)

- axillary artery and vein

- brachial plexus (cords)

- Fatty tissue

- Lymph nodes

Where do the parts of the brachial plexus begin?

Roots: Vertebrae

Trunks: At rib 1

Divisions: At clavicles

Cords: Infraclavicular branches off cords

Terminal Nerves: MAMRU

Erb's/ Knapsack Palsy

What is it, symptoms

- irritation of upper brachial plexus roots

- C5, C6, (C7)

- from side of neck too stretched


- "Waiter's tip position"

Droop shoulder

arm internally rotates

Elevation and retraction of scapula affected


- lateral upper arm (axillary)

- lateral antebrachial (musculocutaneous)

Klumpke's Palsy

- irritation of lower brachial plexus roots

- (C7), C8, T1

- pulling on arm


"Claw Hand"

Hyper extended metacarpal phangeal joint

Flexed interphalangeal joint

Abducted thumb


- medial arm and forearm (medial Cord)

What are the joints between vertebral bodies

- sympysis joint (cartilaginous)

- intervertebral discs (Shock absorbers)

2 aspects of intervertebral discs

- annulus fibrosus

- nucleus pulposus

Shunt Action

Origin near joint

Insertion far from joint

Helps to stabilize joint

ex. brachio-radialis

Spurt action

Origin far from joint

Insertion close to joint

More movement

ex. Brachialis