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26 Cards in this Set

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CCR5-delta32

protein HIV uses to get into cell




^ levels where HIV is rare




body evolved to change shape and not let it in

HIV 1

most common




most infectious

HIV 2



rare




less infectious




developed from different set of monkeys

phylogeny

historical relationships between populations or species

node

a branch point within a genetic tree

shortsighted evolution

virus evolves to be better but also becomes better at killing host

why is HIV lethal?

because of shortsighted evolutionary patterns

microevolution

observable small scale change in species/population




gene frequencies, trait tendencies, etc.

speciation

splitting and diverging of lineages, increasing the number of species

macroevolution

the origination of new life from earlier versions over large periods of time





theory of special creation (creationism)

young earth




no speciation




lineages do not split

theory of descent with modification

species change over time (macroevolution)




new species diverge from others




earth is old

evidence for microevolution

breeding animals for selective traits/behaviors




ex. dogs, mice, soapberry bugs

law of succession

general pattern of correspondence between fossil and living forms from the same locale

evidence for speciation

fruit flies mating with other flies that like same food

species

population/groups of pops which can interbreed

evidence for macroevolution

have to look at fossils




extinction occurs




transitional forms - blennies and archaeopteryx

why do we get the hiccups?

have have evolved from ancestors that went from gill to lung breathing




had to shut glottis to keep water in lungs




neural circuits were repurposed

evidence for common ancestry

homologous structures




molecular/genetic similarities




shared vestigal traits




developmental homologies=tail, pharyngeal arches

evidence for age of the earth

erosion and other slow processes slowly formed the geological structures (uniformitarianism)

lengths of time in order

(longest) Eon>Era>Period>Epoch (shortest)




EoEr PeEp

evolution by natural selection

method by which traits are selected for or against

artificial selection

trait selection forced by humans

Darwin's postules of natural selection

1. there is variation among individuals




2. the variation is inherited




3. more individuals born than will survive




4. some variants survive and reproduce at higher rates than others

darwinian fitness

the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce

adaptation

a trait that improves an individuals darwinian fitness relative to others