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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


protein HIV uses to get into cell

^ levels where HIV is rare

body evolved to change shape and not let it in


most common

most infectious



less infectious

developed from different set of monkeys


historical relationships between populations or species


a branch point within a genetic tree

shortsighted evolution

virus evolves to be better but also becomes better at killing host

why is HIV lethal?

because of shortsighted evolutionary patterns


observable small scale change in species/population

gene frequencies, trait tendencies, etc.


splitting and diverging of lineages, increasing the number of species


the origination of new life from earlier versions over large periods of time

theory of special creation (creationism)

young earth

no speciation

lineages do not split

theory of descent with modification

species change over time (macroevolution)

new species diverge from others

earth is old

evidence for microevolution

breeding animals for selective traits/behaviors

ex. dogs, mice, soapberry bugs

law of succession

general pattern of correspondence between fossil and living forms from the same locale

evidence for speciation

fruit flies mating with other flies that like same food


population/groups of pops which can interbreed

evidence for macroevolution

have to look at fossils

extinction occurs

transitional forms - blennies and archaeopteryx

why do we get the hiccups?

have have evolved from ancestors that went from gill to lung breathing

had to shut glottis to keep water in lungs

neural circuits were repurposed

evidence for common ancestry

homologous structures

molecular/genetic similarities

shared vestigal traits

developmental homologies=tail, pharyngeal arches

evidence for age of the earth

erosion and other slow processes slowly formed the geological structures (uniformitarianism)

lengths of time in order

(longest) Eon>Era>Period>Epoch (shortest)

EoEr PeEp

evolution by natural selection

method by which traits are selected for or against

artificial selection

trait selection forced by humans

Darwin's postules of natural selection

1. there is variation among individuals

2. the variation is inherited

3. more individuals born than will survive

4. some variants survive and reproduce at higher rates than others

darwinian fitness

the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce


a trait that improves an individuals darwinian fitness relative to others