Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/49

Click to flip

49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

cell membrane

Semipermeable phospholipid bilayer. 75% of lipids are phospholipids with hydrophobic and hydrophilic heads.. Composed of lipids, carbs, and proteins.





nucleus

control center of cell, houses DNA,


synthesis site for


mRNA(copies and carries),


rRNA(site of protein synthesis),


tRNA (transports amino acids to protein synthesis site).





ribosomes

synthesize proteins


translate mRNA

ER

extensive system of paired membranes and flat vesicles that connect parts of cell




rough- with ribosomes


smooth-without

golgi apparatus

storage, produces large carbohydrate molecules

lysosome

small membrane enclosed sacs filled with hydrolytic enzymes

peroxisomes

smaller then lysosome, degrades peroxide

proteasomes

proteolysis of malformed or misaligned proteins

mitochondria

power plants of cell


contain separate DNA (inherited matrilineally)


contain own ribosomes

microtubules

slender tubular structures composed of globular proteins that influence cell shape, provide a means of moving organelles though cytoplasm, and effect movement of cilia and chromosomes during cell division



microfilaments

thin threadlike cytoplasmic structures such as actin and myosin and intermediate filaments which function in maintaining shape of cell

Catabolism

is all of the chemical reactions that break down molecules, either to extract energy or to produce simple molecules for constructing others

Anabolism

metabolic reactions that build or assemble more complex molecules from simpler ones.

What is ATP and relate it to cell function

ATP is energy for the cell. Without ATP cell metabolism cannot occur. Produced by cellular respiration and used by enzymes and structural proteins in many cellular processes, including biosynthetic reactions, motility, and cell division.[2] One molecule of ATP contains three phosphate groups, and it is produced by ATP synthase from inorganic phosphate and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Metabolic processes that use ATP as an energy source convert it back into its precursors

Anaerobic metabolism

Glycolysis is energy liberated from glucose.


Occurs in cytoplasm


glucose>pyruvic acid and ATP from ADP


1 glucose = 2 atp




If oxygen is present pyruvic acid goes into rest of cycle




If not pyruvic acid turns into lactic acid

Aerobic metabolism

Supplies 90% of body's energy needs

Occurs in mitochondria


Requires oxygen


AcetylCoA




Glycocytic Pathway> Citric Acid > ETC


Diffusion

high concentration to low concentration



Types of diffusion

Simple- no reaction with carrier protein occurs down a concentration gradient



Facilitated- occurs down concentration gradient, requires transport protein due to type or size of molecule




Ion channels and gates




Active transport

Moving against concentration gradient

Most well known is Na/K ATPase pump


Types of active transport

Primary active transport- sodium, calcium, potassium, hydrogen ions






Secondary active transport- use membrane transport proteins to play off energy of concentration gradient of sodium

Vesicular transport and types

Cell encloses material to either bring into cell (endocytosis) or push out of cell (exocytosis)

diffusion potentials

simple diffusion of ion

equilibrium potentials

chemical forces driving diffusions and repelling electrical forces are balanced

resting membrane potentials

RMP is necessary for electrical excitability. K+ equilibrium potential.

action potentials

opening of Na+ channels, NA+ floods, NA+ closes, K+ leaves

2 types of cell communication

gap junctions



cell surface receptor proteins:




g protein linked (on/off)


enzyme linked (enzymes)


ion channel- nerve cells




epithelial tissue

covering and lining of body surfaces



3 distinct surfaces, joined together, basement membrane



simple


stratified


psuedostratified


glandular


squamous


cuboidal


columnar


connective tissue

supports and connects body structures


fibroblasts are most common

muscle

specialized tissue designed for contractility




skeletal


cardiac


smooth

nervous

communication purposes neurons

atrophy

smaller size and lower more efficient level of functioning due to decrease in work demands or adverse environmental conditions

hypertrophy

increase in cell size and increase in amount of functioning tissue mass due to increased workload

hyperplasia

increase in number of cells

metaplasia

reversible change in which one type of cell is replaced by another cell type. Usually due to chronic inflammation. Doesn't jump tissue type barrier i.e. epithelial to different type of epithelial

dysplasia

deranged cell growth varies in size, shape and organization,

intracellular accumulation types

normal body substances (lipids, proteins, bilirubin)




abnormal endogenous substances (inborn error of metabolism)




exogenous substances

dystrophic calcification

macroscopic deposition of calcium salts in injured tissues

metastatic calcification

occurs in normal tissues due to increased serum calcium levels. Causes are hyperparathyroidism, primary or secondary phosphate retention in renal failure, cx with metastatic bone legions, etc.

mechanisms of cell injury

free radical


hypoxic


impaired calcium homeostasis

free radical cell injury

unpaired electrons that are extremely unstable and reactive. React with normal cell components and damage them or turn them into more free radicals.




Antioxidants remove




ROS or reactive oxygen species is normally produced in body. Oxidative stress occurs when ROS exceeds ability of body to neutralize it.



Hypoxic cell injury

aerobic metabolism stops


less ATP used


Na+/K+ fails


Increase of Na+ Ca+ in cell and K+ out of cell


Cells swell with water (oncosis)


Anaerobic metabolism used


lactic acid damages cell tissues decrease PH


release of lysosomal enzymes


vacuolation


cell digestion

Impaired calcium homeostasis

released after cell damage




increase calcium in cell leads to activation of various enzymes in cell

reperfusion injury

causes oxidative stress




free radicals




membrane damage and mitochondrial overload




neutrophil adhesion to endothelium

What is the difference between reversible or irreversible cell injury

membrane damage / release of lysosomal enzymes


What is oncosis

cell swelling with water

Apoptosis





programmed cell death




can be physiologic (normal)




pathologic- hep b, hep c, ALS, alzheimers

Necrosis

cell death due to unregulated enzyme digestion of cell components, loss of cell membrane integrity, initiation of of inflammatory response


3 Processes


Karyolysis- nuclear dissolution


Pynkosis- clumping of nucleus


Karyorrhexis-fragmentation of nucleus

Types of necrosis

Coagulative- acidosis denatures structural proteins of cell. Typical of infarction / hypoxic injury






Caseous- form of coagulative necrosis in which dead cells resist as soft cheeslike debris. TB






Liquefactive- some cells die but catalytic enzymes are not destroyed. Softening of center of abscess







Gangrene definition and types

considerable amount of tissue undergoes necrosis




dry- lack of blood supply but venous flow intact




wet- lack of venous flow lets fluid accumulate




gas- clostridium infection produces toxins and H2S bubbles