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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

cell membrane

Semipermeable phospholipid bilayer. 75% of lipids are phospholipids with hydrophobic and hydrophilic heads.. Composed of lipids, carbs, and proteins.


control center of cell, houses DNA,

synthesis site for

mRNA(copies and carries),

rRNA(site of protein synthesis),

tRNA (transports amino acids to protein synthesis site).


synthesize proteins

translate mRNA


extensive system of paired membranes and flat vesicles that connect parts of cell

rough- with ribosomes


golgi apparatus

storage, produces large carbohydrate molecules


small membrane enclosed sacs filled with hydrolytic enzymes


smaller then lysosome, degrades peroxide


proteolysis of malformed or misaligned proteins


power plants of cell

contain separate DNA (inherited matrilineally)

contain own ribosomes


slender tubular structures composed of globular proteins that influence cell shape, provide a means of moving organelles though cytoplasm, and effect movement of cilia and chromosomes during cell division


thin threadlike cytoplasmic structures such as actin and myosin and intermediate filaments which function in maintaining shape of cell


is all of the chemical reactions that break down molecules, either to extract energy or to produce simple molecules for constructing others


metabolic reactions that build or assemble more complex molecules from simpler ones.

What is ATP and relate it to cell function

ATP is energy for the cell. Without ATP cell metabolism cannot occur. Produced by cellular respiration and used by enzymes and structural proteins in many cellular processes, including biosynthetic reactions, motility, and cell division.[2] One molecule of ATP contains three phosphate groups, and it is produced by ATP synthase from inorganic phosphate and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Metabolic processes that use ATP as an energy source convert it back into its precursors

Anaerobic metabolism

Glycolysis is energy liberated from glucose.

Occurs in cytoplasm

glucose>pyruvic acid and ATP from ADP

1 glucose = 2 atp

If oxygen is present pyruvic acid goes into rest of cycle

If not pyruvic acid turns into lactic acid

Aerobic metabolism

Supplies 90% of body's energy needs

Occurs in mitochondria

Requires oxygen


Glycocytic Pathway> Citric Acid > ETC


high concentration to low concentration

Types of diffusion

Simple- no reaction with carrier protein occurs down a concentration gradient

Facilitated- occurs down concentration gradient, requires transport protein due to type or size of molecule

Ion channels and gates

Active transport

Moving against concentration gradient

Most well known is Na/K ATPase pump

Types of active transport

Primary active transport- sodium, calcium, potassium, hydrogen ions

Secondary active transport- use membrane transport proteins to play off energy of concentration gradient of sodium

Vesicular transport and types

Cell encloses material to either bring into cell (endocytosis) or push out of cell (exocytosis)

diffusion potentials

simple diffusion of ion

equilibrium potentials

chemical forces driving diffusions and repelling electrical forces are balanced

resting membrane potentials

RMP is necessary for electrical excitability. K+ equilibrium potential.

action potentials

opening of Na+ channels, NA+ floods, NA+ closes, K+ leaves

2 types of cell communication

gap junctions

cell surface receptor proteins:

g protein linked (on/off)

enzyme linked (enzymes)

ion channel- nerve cells

epithelial tissue

covering and lining of body surfaces

3 distinct surfaces, joined together, basement membrane








connective tissue

supports and connects body structures

fibroblasts are most common


specialized tissue designed for contractility





communication purposes neurons


smaller size and lower more efficient level of functioning due to decrease in work demands or adverse environmental conditions


increase in cell size and increase in amount of functioning tissue mass due to increased workload


increase in number of cells


reversible change in which one type of cell is replaced by another cell type. Usually due to chronic inflammation. Doesn't jump tissue type barrier i.e. epithelial to different type of epithelial


deranged cell growth varies in size, shape and organization,

intracellular accumulation types

normal body substances (lipids, proteins, bilirubin)

abnormal endogenous substances (inborn error of metabolism)

exogenous substances

dystrophic calcification

macroscopic deposition of calcium salts in injured tissues

metastatic calcification

occurs in normal tissues due to increased serum calcium levels. Causes are hyperparathyroidism, primary or secondary phosphate retention in renal failure, cx with metastatic bone legions, etc.

mechanisms of cell injury

free radical


impaired calcium homeostasis

free radical cell injury

unpaired electrons that are extremely unstable and reactive. React with normal cell components and damage them or turn them into more free radicals.

Antioxidants remove

ROS or reactive oxygen species is normally produced in body. Oxidative stress occurs when ROS exceeds ability of body to neutralize it.

Hypoxic cell injury

aerobic metabolism stops

less ATP used

Na+/K+ fails

Increase of Na+ Ca+ in cell and K+ out of cell

Cells swell with water (oncosis)

Anaerobic metabolism used

lactic acid damages cell tissues decrease PH

release of lysosomal enzymes


cell digestion

Impaired calcium homeostasis

released after cell damage

increase calcium in cell leads to activation of various enzymes in cell

reperfusion injury

causes oxidative stress

free radicals

membrane damage and mitochondrial overload

neutrophil adhesion to endothelium

What is the difference between reversible or irreversible cell injury

membrane damage / release of lysosomal enzymes

What is oncosis

cell swelling with water


programmed cell death

can be physiologic (normal)

pathologic- hep b, hep c, ALS, alzheimers


cell death due to unregulated enzyme digestion of cell components, loss of cell membrane integrity, initiation of of inflammatory response

3 Processes

Karyolysis- nuclear dissolution

Pynkosis- clumping of nucleus

Karyorrhexis-fragmentation of nucleus

Types of necrosis

Coagulative- acidosis denatures structural proteins of cell. Typical of infarction / hypoxic injury

Caseous- form of coagulative necrosis in which dead cells resist as soft cheeslike debris. TB

Liquefactive- some cells die but catalytic enzymes are not destroyed. Softening of center of abscess

Gangrene definition and types

considerable amount of tissue undergoes necrosis

dry- lack of blood supply but venous flow intact

wet- lack of venous flow lets fluid accumulate

gas- clostridium infection produces toxins and H2S bubbles