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82 Cards in this Set

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A dye added to the non-emulsion side of duplicating film to prevent backscattered ultraviolet light from coming through the films and creating an unsharp image
Antihalation coating
An intraoral radiograph that shows the crowns of both the upper and lower teeth on the same film
Bitewing radiograph
A photographic film similar to x-ray film. Duplicating film is exposed by the action of infrared and ultraviolet light rather than by x-rays. Used to duplicate x-ray films in a contact-printer-type x-ray duplicating unit.
Duplicating film
The gelatinous coating on radiographic film containing silver halide crystals
emulsion
Designed for use outside the mouth
Extraoral film
Intraoral film packaged in a moisture-proof outer plastic or paper wrap. May contain one or two films, wrapped in dark protective paper on either side, and a thin sheet of lead foil on the back side of the film(s).
Film packet
The sensitivity of the film to radiation exposure. Fast film speed requires less radiation to produce an image. Slow film speed requires more radiation to produce an image.
Film speed
Component of the film emulsion in which the halide crystals are suspended
Gelatin
A compound of halogen (astatine, bromine, chlorine, fluorine, or iodine) with another element or radical. Dental film emulsion is primarily, about 90 to 99%, silver bromide and 1 to 10 percent silver iodide.
Halide
Small circular embossed mark on the corner of intraoral x-ray film. Used to determine the patient’s right or left side when viewing radiographs.
Identification dot
Plastic sheet coated with calcium tungstate or rare earth fluorescent salt crystals. Positioned in a cassette. When exposed to radiation the fluorescent salts glow, giving off a blue (calcium tungstate) or green (rare earth) light. Produces a latent image faster than is possible when radiation alone is used.
Intensifying screen
Film that is placed in the oral cavity for exposure.
Intraoral film
The invisible image produced when the film is exposed to x-ray photons. Image remains invisible until the film is processed.
Latent image
Radiograph procuced by placing the film against the incisal or occlusal plane. The patient stabilizes the film packet by biting down on it. In addition to the teeth, occlusal radiographs may show surrounding maxillary or mandibular structures. Depending on the film placement and angle of exposure, cross-sectional or topographic radiographic are produced.
Occlusal radiograph
Any smaller sized film packet used for radiographs of children’s teeth.
Pedodontic film
Image that shows the entire tooth or teeth and surrounding tissues. Peri means “around” and apical to the root of the tooth.
Periapical radiograph
Extraoral film for use in cassettes with intensifying screens. Emulsion is more sensitive to green, blue, and violet light, emitted when the radiation strikes the phosphors in the intensifying screens than to the x-radiation.
Screen film
Compounds of a halogen (either bromine or iodine) with silver. Dental film emulsion is approximately 90 to 99 percent silver bromide and 1 to 10 percent silver iodide. Silver halide crystals are sensitive to radiation. It is the silver halide crystals that when exposed to x-rays, retain the latent image
Silver halide crystals
Used for duplicating film. Produces a duplicate image that gets lighter the longer the film is exposed to light. Darker images result from shorter exposure times.
Solarized emulsion
Describes the side of an intraoral film packet or extraoral cassette that must face the source of x-rays coming from the tube.
Tube side
A chemical in the fixer solution that provides the acid medium to stop further development by neutralizing the alkali of ttof the developer.
Acetic acid
A chemical (acetic acid) in the fixer solution that neutralizes the alkali in the developer solution and stops further acton of the developer
Acidifier
A chemical (usual sodium carbonate) in the developer solution that causes the emulsion on the radiographic film to swell. Initiates the reducing action of the developing agents. Sodium carbonate makes the developer alkaline.
Activator
A machine that develops, fixes, washes and dries radiographic film
Automatic processing unit
A light-tight box with a filter cover used to rapidly process working radiographs. Usually in the operatory where the patient is being treated.
Chairside darkroom
Refers to the use of a chairside processor to rapidly obtain working radiographs. Often necessary during endodontic procedures.
Chairside processing
A light-tight room with special safelighting where x-ray film is handled and processed
Darkroom
A light-shielded compartment attached to an automatic processor so films can be unwrapped in a room with white light.
Daylight loader
The chemical solution used in film processing that makes the latent image visible.
Developer
Elon and hydroquinone, substances that reduce the halides in the film emulsion to metallic silver. Elon brings out the details and hydroquinone brings out the contrast in the film.
Developing agent
Developer reducing agent that converts exposed silver halide crystals to black metallic silver. Builds up gray tones in the image
Elon
Opening in an automatic film processor where the film is inserted for processing
Film feed slot
A stainless steel hanger equipped with clips used to hold films during manual processing
Film hanger
Opening in a n automatic film processing unit where the finished radiograph exits at the completion of the processing cycle.
Film recovery slot
A solution of chemicals that stops the action of the developer and makes the image permanently visible.
Fixer
Sodium thiosulfate, also known as “hypo” or hyposulfite of sodium. It is one of several chemical ingredients in the fixer solution and functions to remove all unexposed and any remaining undeveloped silver bromide grains from the emulsion.
Fixing agent
A compound of halogen (astatine, bromine, chlorine, fluorine, or iodine) with another element or radical. Dental film emulsion is primarily, about 90 to 99 percent, silver bromide and 1 to 10 percent silver iodide.
Halide
(hardener): potassium alum, one of the chemicals of the fixing solution. Functions to shrink and harden the wet emulsion.
Hardening agent
Reduces (converts) exposed silver halide crystals to black metallic silver. Slowly builds up black tones and contrast.
Hydroquinone
The invisible image produced when the film is exposed to x-ray photons. Image remains invisible until the film is processed.
Latent image
Securing an area against all sources of white light. Characteristic of a darkroom.
Light-tight
The process during which the chemicals of the developing and fisxing solutions combine with oxygen and lose their strength.
Oxidation
One of the components of fixer solution. Shrinks and hardens the gelatin emulsion.
Potassium alum
Restrains the developing agents from developing the unexposed silver halide crystals.
Potassium bromide
One of the chemicals (sodium sulfate) used in both the developer and fixer solutions to slow down the rate of oxidation and prevent spoilage of the solution
Preservative
The act of bringing out the latent image and making it permanently visible. Includes the following darkroom procedures developing rinsing, fixing, washing, and drying.
Processing
Stainless steel receptacle divided into compartments for developer solution, water rinse, and fixer solution. Used to process radiographs.
Processing tank
That portion of the radiograph that is dark. Structures that lack density permit the passage of x-rays with little or no resistance. These structures appear dark on the image.
Radiolucent
That portion of the radiograph that appears light. Dense structures resist the passage of radiation. These structures appear light on the image.
Radiopaque
The use of concentrated and/or hearted developer to quickly process working films, often with the use of a chairside darkroom.
Rapid processing
A super concentrated solution of developer or fixer that is added daily, or as indicated, to the developer or fixer in the processing tank to compensate for loss of volume and loss of strength from oxidation. The act of adding replenisher to the processing solutions is known as replenishment.
Replenisher
Potassium bromide in the developer solution that slows down the action of the elon and hydroquinone and inhibits the tendency of the solution to chemically fog the films.
Restrainer
Cracking of the film emulsion caused by a great temperature difference between the developer and the rinse tower.
Reticulation
Moves films through the developer, fixer, water, and drying compartments of a n automatic processor. Motor driven gears or belts propel the roller transport system.
Roller transport system
Special filtered light that can be left on in the darkroom while films are processed.
Safelight
Removes short wavelengths in the blue-green region of visible light. The longer wavelength red-orange light is allowed pass through the filter, illuminating the darkroom without fogging the film.
Safelight filter
Chemical change that takes place within the film emulsion during development. During this change, the non-metallic elements are separated from the silver halide of the exposed crystals, leaving a coating of metallic silver on the film emulsion while the bromide is removed. The process is called selective because the unexposed grains are not reduced.
Selective reduction
Provides required alkalinity of the developer solution to activate developing agents.
Sodium carbonate
Chemical of the developing solution that prevents rapid oxidation of the developing agents.
Sodium sulfite
Chemical of the fixer solution that together the ammonium thiosulfate removes the unexposed and any remaining undeveloped silver halide crystals
sodium thiosulfate
Principle of film processing. The length of time the film spends in the developer is based on the temperature of the developer solution. When the temperature is cool, processing time is increased. When the temperature is warm, processing time ids decreased. Film manufacturer will usually recommend an ideal temperature and time that will produce quality images.
Time-temperature
Device used to view dental radiographs. Consists of a light source illuminator behind an opaque glass.
Viewbox
Viewing a radiograph under white light conditions after only two or three minutes of fixation. Used when a diagnosis from the raediograph is needed quickly following the wet reading, the film must be returned to the fixer to complete processing.
Wet reading
A film that is rapidly processed when information is needed quickly. often used during endodontic procedures. However, short developing and fixing times, combined with minimal washing, result in a substandard radiograph.
Working radiograph
Images on the film other than anatomy or pathology that do not contribute to a diagnosis of the patient’s condition.
Artifacts
A term used to describe a technigque error in wich the central beam is not directed toward the center of the film. This produces a blank area in that part of the radiograph that was not reached by the radiation.
Cone cut
When the projection angle of the x-ray beam is directed from distal to mesial, resulting in overlapping error.
Distomesial projection
Using the same film packet to expose two radiographs. Results in an overexposed, double image error.
Double exposure
Refers to a distortion of the radiographic image in which the tooth structures appear longer thatn the anatomical size. Often caused by insuffiecient vertical angulation of the central beam
Elongation
to prove breach of duty the patient has to have documentation of?
- physical injury
- medical costs
- loss of wages
- pain and suffering
Distortion of the radiographic image in which the tooth structures appear shorter than their actual anatomical size. Most often caused by excessive vertical angulation of the central beam.
Foreshortening
(also called tire track pattern) image produced on a radiograph when the film packet is placed in the mouth backwards. The embossed pattern in the lead foil produces this image when exposed.
Herringbone pattern
When the projection angle of the x-ray beam is directed wfrom mesial to distal resulting in overlapping error
Mesiodistal projection
Leaving the film in the developer solution too long or using developer thazt is too warm. Overdevelopment results in a dark image.
Overdevelopment
Exposing the film too long or subjecting the film to an inappropriately increased kVp or mA setting. Overexposure results in a dark image
Overexposure
Term used to refer to a distortion of the tooth image in which the structures of one tooth are superimposed over the structures of the adjacent tooth. Most often caused by incorrect horizontal angulation of the scentral beam.
Overlapping
A black (radiolucent) line that appears on a processed film at the point where a film packet was bent or subjected to excessive pressure
Pressure mark
Cracking of the film emulsion caused by a great temperature difference between the developer and the rinse water
Reticulation
A white-light spark that creates a radiolucent artefact on the film
Static electricity
Not leaving the film in the developer solution long enough or using developer that is too cool or an old, weak solution. Underdevelopment results in a light image
Underdevelopment
Not exposing the film long enough or using an inappropriately decreased kVp or mA setting. Underexposure results in a light image.
Underexposure
optimal time/ temperture for manual processing
68 f or 20 c for five minutes