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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Define the term “actor”. Give an example.

An actor represents anything that needs to interact with the system to exchange information. An actor is a user, a role, which could be an external system as well as a person. E.g. a customer who submits a order.

What are the different tools a project manager can use to prioritize and schedule use cases?

1/ use-case ranking and priority matrix

2/ use-case dependency diagram

List the benefits of constructing a use-case dependencydiagram.

1/ graphical depiction of the system's events and their states enhances understanding of system functionality

2/ helps identify missing use cases

3/ helps facilitate project management by depicting which use cases are more critical

Differentiate between entities and entity instances. Why don’t we try to model instances?

An entity is a class of persons, places, objects, events, or concepts about which we need to capture and store data. An entity instance is a single occurrence of an entity.

In data modeling we do not concern ourselves with individual occurrences or instances of an entity because we recognize that each occurrence of an entity is described by similar pieces of data.

Differentiate between candidate keys, primary keys andalternate keys. Can each of these be a concatenated key?

A candidate key is a candidate to become the primary identifier of instances of an entity.

A primary key is that candidate key which will most commonly be used to uniquely identify a single entity instance.

An alternate key is any candidate key that is not selected to become the primary key.

All three examples of keys can become concatenated keys.

What is an associative entity? What role does it play intenary relationships? What role does it play in resolving nonspecificrelationships?

Associate entity is an entity that inherits its primary key from more than one other entity.

The associate entity plays the connecting role in the ternary relationships.

It resolves nonspecific relationships by becoming the connecting factor that resolves many-to-many relationship by using the foreign keys from other entities.

What is a “weak” entity?

The child entity of any identifying relationship is frequently referred to as a "weak" entity because its identification is dependent on the existence of the parent entity's existence.

Differentiate between cardinality and degree?

cardinality - shows the complexity of each relationship.

Degree - of a relationship is the number of entities that participate in the relationship.

What is subsetting criteria?

is an attribute (or concatenated attribute) whose finite values divide all entity instances into useful subsets.

Differentiate between data modeling and data analysis.

data analysis is a process that prepares a data model for implementation as a simple, non-redundant, flexible, and adaptable database. The specific technique is called normalization.

Normalization is a data analysis technique that organizes data attributes such that they are grouped to form non-redundant, stable, flexible, and adaptive entities.

How does a data-to-location-CRUD matrix supplement a datamodel?

while a logical data model is effective for describing what data is to be stored for a new system, it does not communicate those requirements on a business operating location basis. The data-to-location-CRUD matrix can supplement the data model by identifying what data can access rights are needed at which locations.

Differentiate between a data flow and a control flow.

A data flow represents an input of data to a process or the output of data from a process.

A control flow represents a condition or non-data event that triggers a process.

What is the difference between data flows and data stores? What is the difference between data flows and data entities? What is the difference between data entities and external entities?

A data flow is data in motion, while a data store is data at rest. A data flow represents an input of data to a process or the output of data from a process.

A data stores is an "inventory" of data. A data entity is something about which we want to store data. A data store is all instances of a data entity.

A data entity is something about which we want to store data, while an external entity is a person, organization unit, other system, or other organization that lays outside of the scope of the project, but which interacts with the system being studies.

What is a process? Name three types of logical processes.

A process is work performed on, or in response to, incoming data flows or conditions. 3 types:

1/ functions

2/ events

3/ elementary (or primitive) processes

What is the difference between logical and physical modeling? Why is logical modeling more important in systems analysis?

Logical models show what a system is or does. They are implementation-independent. They illustrate the essence of the system.

Physical models show not only what a system is or does, but also how the system is physically and technically implemented.

Logical modeling is important in systems analysis because it removes biases that are the result of the way the current system is implemented or the way that any one person thinks the system might be implemented. It reduces the risk of missing business requirements because we are too preoccupied with technical details. It also allows us to communicate with end-users in non-technical or less technical languages.

What purpose does Structured English serve in processmodeling?

Structured English is a language and syntax, based upon the relative strengths of structured programming and natural English, for specifying the underlying logic of elementary processes on process models.

What is event partitioning?

Event partitioning factors a system into subsystems based on business events and responses to those events.

What are the basic constructs of Structured English?

1/ a sequence of simple, declarative sentences.

2/ a conditional or decision structure.

3/ an iteration or repetition structure.

What is the relationship between policy and a decisiontable?

A policy is a set of rules that govern some process in the business and a decision table is a tabular form of presentation that specifies a set of conditions and their corresponding actions. The decision tables can be useful for specifying complex policies and decision-making rules.

What are the basic constructs of a data structure?

1/ a sequence or group of data attributes that occur one after another.

2/ the selection of one or more attributes from a set of attributes.

3/ the repetition of one or more attributes.

Define Object Modeling.

Object modeling is a technique for identifying objects within the systems environment and the relationships between those objects.

What is an attribute? Give several examples of attributesfor an object.

Attributes are the data that represent characteristics of interest about an object. E.g. first name, last name, street address, phone number, etc.

Explain the concept of message sending for objects /classes.

A message is passed when one object invokes another object's method (behavior) to request information or some action.

Define the term polymorphism. Give an example.

Polymorphism means "many forms". Applied to object-oriented techniques, it means that a behavior may be completed differently for different objects/classes. E.g. A DOOR and a WINDOW may perform the behavior CLOSE differently.

Explain the relationship between prototyping, JAD, and RAD.

Prototyping, JAD, and RAD are all strategies for systems design that when used in conjunction with each other are successful implementation design tools.

Explain the difference between a request for proposal (RFP)and a request for quotation (RFQ).

A request for quotation is used when you have already decided on the specific product, but that product can be acquired from several distributors. A request for proposal is used when several different vendors and/or products are candidates and you want to solicit competitive proposals and quotes.

Define dependency & navigability.

Dependency means that when a change occurs in one class, it may affect another other class. Navigability means that classes with associations between them can send messages. Normally, but not always, the messages can be sent in either direction.

Explain the difference between an “initiator” actor and a“receiver” actor. Give an example ofeach actor.

An initiator actor initiates the use case and the receiver actor receives the information from the system. E.g. club member and warehouse

Define the term object responsibility. Give an example.

Object responsibility is the obligation that an object has to provide a service when requested and thus collaborating with other objects to satisfy the request if required.

An ORDER object may have the responsibility to display a customer's order.

Identify the three object-oriented design activities.

1/ refining the use case model to reflect the implementation environment.

2/ modeling object interactions and behavior that support he use case scenario.

3/ updating the object model to reflect the implementation environment.

What is process decomposition and what role does it play inprocess modeling?

Process decomposition is when a system is separated into its component subsystems, which in turn are decomposed into smaller subsystems, until such a time as we have identified manageable subsets of the overall system.

In process, modeling decomposition allows you to partition a system into logical subsets of processes for improved communication, analysis and design.