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7 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Traditional Antipsychotics
What: phenothiazine (chlorpromazine, fluphenazine), thioxanthene (thiothixene), and butyrophenone (haloperidol)

Why: positive symptoms of schizophrenia and psychotic symptoms of major depression

How: block dopamine

Effects: anticholinergic (dry mouth, blurry vision, tachycardia, urinary retention, constipation, delayed ejaculation - appear early and then decrease), Extrapyramidal (parkinsonism, akathisia, dystonia, tardive dyskinesia), neuroleptic malignant syndrome (can be fatal; rapid onset of muscle figidity, tachycardia, hyperthermia, altered consciousness).
Atypical Antipsychotics
What: dibenzodiazepine (clozapine), benzisoxazole (resperidone), thienobenzodiazepine (olanzapine) and dibenzothiazepine (quetiapine)

Why: pos & neg sx; clozapine good for bipolar disorder, addiction, and motor symptoms of Huntington's & Parkinson's, but slower acting than traditionals

How: act on dopamine as well as serotonin and glutamate

Effects: anticholinergic, seizure, sedation; less extrapyramidal side effects & TD, but can produce agranulocytosis requiring blood monitoring. Can produce NMS (neuroleptic malignant syndrome)
What: amitiptyline, doxepin, imipramine, clomipramine

Why: best for vegetative, somatic sx of depression; panic disorder, agoraphobia, bulimia, OCD (clomipramine), and enuresis (imipramine)

How: block reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and/or dopamine, supporting catecholamine hypothesis (the norepinephrine)

Effects: cardiovascular sx; anticholinergic; confusion, drowsiness, fatigue, weight gain, tremor, parethesia, blood dyscrasia
What: fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline

Why: depression esp melancholic, OCD, bulimia, panic disorder, PTSD


Effects: GI problems, insomnia, anxiety, headache, dizziness, anorexia, tremor, frequent urination, sexual dysfunction

Other: less cardiotoxic, safer in overdose, less cognitive impairment, more rapid onset than tricyclics.

Mixing w/MAOI can cause serotonin syndrome: headache, nystagmus, tremor, dizzoness, unsteady gate, irritability, confusion, delirium, cardiac arrhythmia
What: isocarboxazid, phenelzine, tranylcypromine

Why: non-endogenous and atypical depressions w/anxiety, reversed vegetative sx (hypersomnia, hyperphagia) and interpersonal sensitivity

How: inhibit MAO which is involved in deactivating dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin

Effects: anticholinergic, insomnia, agitation, confusion, rash, weight gain, edema, headache, dizziness, tremor, blood dyscrasia, hypertensive crisis (dangerous)

Other: must avoid barbiturates, amphetamines, antihistamines, and tyramine (aged cheese & meat, beer, red wine, chicken liver, avocados, bananas, fava beans)
Newer Antidepressants
What: buproprion

Why: Major Depression, Bipolar Depression, smoking

How: buproprion is a norepinephrine dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI)

Effects: fewer anticholinergic effects, reduced sexual dysfunction, but may aggravate pre-existing psychosis and seizures

What: venlafaxine

Why: Major Depression, OCD, and GAD

How: Venlafaxine is a selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)

Effects: Less dangerous in overdose than TCAs and may have faster onset. Can increase blood pressure

What: Nefazodone and trazodone

Why: major depression and bipolar depression

How: serotonin-2 antagonists/reuptake inhibitors (SARIs)

Effects of nefazodone: dry mouth, nausea, dizziness, blurred vision, confusion.

Effects of trazodone: sedation, orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, headache, nausea, and (rarely) priapism
Mood Stabilizers
What: Lithium:

Why: drug of choice for bipolar

How: effects not clear but may be related to reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine

Effects: nausea fine hand tremor, polyuria, polydipsia, usually subside in a few weeks. Danger of toxicity and requires blood monitoring

What: Carbamazepine

Why:non-responders to lithium, rapid cyclers, dysphoric mania

How: unknown mode of action but possibly related to serotonin levels

Effects:dizziness, ataxia, visual disturbances, anorexia, nausea, rash, but tolerance develops quickly; contraindicated for cardiac conduction problem patients; requires blood monitoring because of risk of agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia