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37 Cards in this Set

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Environmental policy
a statement by an organization (either public, such as government, or private) of its intentions and principles in relation to its overall environmental perfomrance. environmental policy provides a framework for action and for the setting of its enviromental objectives and target."
Principles of enviromental policy and develeopment
1. the precautionary principle
2. environmental justice
3. environmental sustainability
4. the polluter-pays principle
The precautionary principle
states that preventive, anticipatory measures should be taken when an activity raises threats of harm to the environment, wildlife, of human health, even if some cause- and -effect relationships are not fully established.
Environmental justice
the concept of environmental justice denotes the equal treatment of all people in society irrespective of their racial background, country of origin and socioeconomic status
Environmental sustainability
as a goal of environmental plicy, environmental sustainability adheres to the philosophical viewpoint that a strong, just, and wealthy society can be consistent with a clean environment, healthy ecosystems, and a beautiful planet.
polluter pays principle
the polluter pays principle means that the polluter shoudl bear the expenses of carrying out the pollution prevention and control measures...to ensrue that the environment is in an acceptable state.
Relationship of risk assessment to policy process
risk assessment is closely aligned with the policy process throught he balancing of economic and other costs with health and societal benefits that my accrue through specific policy alternatives.
-a first part of the environmental policy-making process
risk management
the process of risk management involves the adoption of steps to eliminate identified risks or lower them to acceptable levels (often as determined by a government agency that has taken into account input from the public)
examples of risk management
-licesnsing laws
-standard setting laws
-control oriented measures
Environmental impact assessment (EIA)
process that reviews the potential impact of anthropogenci activities with respect to their general environmental consequences
Health impact assessment (HIA)
a method for describing and estimating the effects that a proposed project or policy may have on the health of a population
-examples of probjects that may impact health
-large dams, mines, power plants, airports
-development corridors, urban development
Case studies of Environmental health policies
-EPA strategic plan (2009-2014)
-Water policy reform in South Africa
-Environmental policies in economies in transition
-control of pollution across international boundaries
EPA strategic plan (2009-2014)
-reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
-sustainable agriculture
-impacts of global climate change
-import safety
-improving program implementation in Indian Country
-Enforcement/compliance measurement approach
-research strategic directions and targets
-environmental indicators, monitoring and related information
Water Policy Reform in South Africa
-the national water act (1998)
-the water services act (1997)
-to increase the equitability of water distribution and to protect aquatic ecosystems in the country
Environmental policies in economies in transition
Estonia, Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic
-the polluter pays principle
-reduction in subsidies to inefficient, heavy industries that cause pollution
Control of pollution across international boundaries
-kyoto protocol (1997)
-effective in 2005
-fighting global warming
-191 countries ratified by 2011
-the US signed but not ratified
-Canada renounced the protocol in dec. 2011
Protecting the rights of children and special vulnerable populations
a coherent policy to assure that the environment is free from children's exposure to environmental toxicants
The built environment
urban areas and structures (e.g., roads, parks, and buildings) constructed by human beings
-policies for design of the built environment
-sustainable community: co-locating of business facilities, shopping centers, and residence

protection of open space and the creation of public parks
Table 4-4: Environmental contaminants detected in traditional food items and human tissue samples
-industrial chemicals and by-products (e.g., dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, flame retardants)

-pesicides (DDT)

-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzoapyrene)

-Heavy metals (e.g., mercury, lead)

-procudcts of nuclear radiation
Agencies involved in adoption, implementation, and enforcement of environmental policies
-National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
-Agency for Toxic Substances and disease registry (ATSDR)
-National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
-European Union (EU) and European Environmetnal Agency (EEA)
World Health Organization (WHO)
-Major international agency that is responsible for environmental health at the global level
-provides leadership in minimizing adverse environmental health outcomes associated with pollution, industrial development, and related issues.
US environmental protection agency (EPA)
Mission: to protect human health and the environment
-leads the nation's environmental science research, education, and assessment efforts.
-established in 1970
-write and enforce regulations
national Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Mission: to generate new knowledge in the field of occupational safety and health and to transfer that knowledge into practice for betterment of workers

in July, 1970, the White house and Congress established the EPA in response to the growing public demand for cleaner water, air and land
conduct research, devleops guidance and authoritative recommendations, disseminates information and responds to request for workplace health hazard evaluation.

Occupational safety and Health Act of 1970
Agency for toxic substances and disease registry (ATSDR)
the nation's public health agency for chemical safety.
-comprehensive environmental response, compensation, and liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980
-protecting the public from toxic exposures
-increasing knowledge about toxic substances
-delivering health education about toxic chemicals
-maintaining health registries
National Institute of environmental Health sciences (NIEHS)
One of the NIH institutions
-home to National Toxicology program
-cell phone radiation
-endocrine disruptors
-developoing new technologies
European Union (EU)and European Environmental Agency (EEA)
To supply information to 32 member countries regarding the environment
Environmental advocacy organizations
-National Wildlife conservation
-The nature conservancy
-Sierra Club
-Union of concerned scientist
Table 4-6: Major US Environmental health laws
Clean Air Act (1970)
Clean Water Act (1977, and later ammendments

Safe drinking Water act (1974)

national envrionmetnal Policy Act (NEPA) (1969)

-Federal insecticide, fungicide, and rodenticide Act (FIFRA-1996)
-Toxic substances control act (TSCA) 1976
-Comprehensive environmental response, compensation, and liablity act- CERCLA-superfund.1980
Clean Air Act of 1970
A comprehensive federal law that regulates air emissions from stationary and mobile sources
-authorizes EPA to establish National Ambient Air quality standards (NAAQS) to protect public health and public welfare and to regulate emissions of hazardous air pollutants
Clean Water Act (1972, 1977)
The federal water pollution control act of 1948 was the first major US law to address water pollution
-as amended in 1972 and 1977, the law became commonly known as the clean water act(CWA)
-established the basic structure for regulating pollutants dicharges into the waters of the United States and regulating quality standards for surface waters.
Safe drinking water act of 1974
Established to protect the quality of drinking water in the US.
-authorizes EPA to establish min. standards to protect tap water and requires all owners or operators of public water systems to comply with these primary health related standards.
National environmental policy act (NEPA) of 1969
one of the first laws ever written that establishes broad, national framework for protecting our environment
-NEPA's basic policy is to assure that all branches of gov't give proper consideration to the environment prior to undertaking any major federal action that significantly affects the environment.
Federal insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) of 1996
FIFRA provides for federal regulation of pesticide distribution, sale, and use.
-all pesticides distributed or sold in the US must be resitered (licensed) by the EPA.

-Before EPA registers a pesticide under FIFRA, the applicant must show that usign the pesticide according to specifications 'will not generally cause unreasonable adverse effects on the environment."
Toxic Substances control Act (TSCA) of 1976
provides EPA with authority to require reporting, record-keeping and testing requirements, and restrictions relating to chemical substances and/or mixtures.
-various sections of TSCA provide authority t maintain the TSCA inventory, under Section 8, which contains more than 83,000 chemicals.
Comprehensie Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) 1980
Provies a Federal "superfund" to clean up uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites as well as accidents, spills and other emergency releases of pollutants and contaminants into the environment.

EPA was given power to seek out those parties responsible for any release and assure their cooperation in the cleanup.
Resource conservation and recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976
-EPA controls hazardous waste from the "cradle-to-grave" This includes the generation, transporation, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste.

-enabled EPA to addess environmental problesm that could result from undergound tanks storing petroleum and other hazardous substances.

-RCRA focuses on waste minimization and phasing out land disposal of hazardous waste as well as corrective action for releases.
Endangered species Act (1973)
provides a program for the conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animals and the habitants in which they are found.

-the US Fish and wildlife service (FW) maintains a worldwide list of endangered species. Species include birds, insects, fish, reptiles, mammals, crustaceans, flowers, grasses, and trees.