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121 Cards in this Set

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Language Family

languages that were once one

Cognate languages

parts of language families

Sammbaum theory

languages are like a family tree

Wellentheorie

language changes in small areas then spreads out, accounts for the fact that geographically near languages are more similar than geographically far

What does Stammbaum theory do?

provides vocab for comparing languages

native word

has been in languages since beginning

borrowed word/loanword

has been introduced by another time and language

dialect

mutually intelligible versions of a language

inflectional language

inseparable inflections are fused with lexical systems to carry much of grammatical info

examples of inflectional languages

greek and latin

agglutinative language

grammatical morphemes are relatively unchanged and strung on to a lexical stem one after the other

example of agglutinative language

swahili and turkish

isolating languages

every morpheme forms seperable word and individual particles

Who was the earliest to attempt to study language change?

Grammatarian of Iceland

Dante

saw familiarities in Greek, Latin and Germanic languages

Salinger

refuted notion that hebrew was original language and divided languages of Europe into 11

Salingers 11 European languages

Slavic, German, Italic, Greek, Albanian, Tarter, Hungarian, Finnish, Irish, Welsh, Basque

Sir William Jones

Sanskrit, Latin, Greek, Germanic and Celtic languages related to a died out language

Franz Bopp

highly detailed comparison of verbal systems



Rasmus Rask

importance of systematic phonological changes and pointed out interrelationships among various members of IE family

Schleischer

historic linguistic is discipline, stammbaum theorie

When was the earliest written record of IE

1500

When was IE spoken?

5000 BC, late Stone Age people

When did the language move to Europe and Asia and why?

3000 BC, migration





IE languages

Satem, Centum, Indo-Iranian, Tocharian, Armenian, Anatolian, Balto-slavic, Hellenic, Albanian, Celtic, Italic, Germanic

Where were satem languages spoken

east

where were centum languages

west

Indo-Iranian

Sanskrit, pali, hindi, urdu, nepali, bengali, marathi, gujarati, panjabi, assamese, singhalese, romany, bihari, sindhi, punshi, augton, old persian,

what were the vedas written in?

sanskrit, old religious texts

what were the oldest records written in?

auguston

what were the dialects of auguston

afghan and ossetic



Tocharian dialects

A 7th century, B 5th century, distinct today

Armenian

written in great persian diaries, 2 brances: eastern and western

Anatolian

best documented in Hittite, due to bible and Egyptian records, cunieform

dialects of anatolian

luwian, palaic, lydian, lycian, hittite, hieroglyphs

Balto-slavic

Baltic and Slavic

Baltic

West (old prussian, extinct) 5th century, East (lithuanian and Latvian) 16th century

Slavic

earliest 9th century, east, west, south

Bishops Cyril and Methodius

translated religioous texts into Old Bulgarion/Old Church Slavonic and created Glagolitic alphabet



East slavic

Russian, Byelorussian, Ukranian

West Slavic

Polish, Czech, slovak, sorbian

South

slovenian, serbo-croation, bulgarian, macedonian

Hellenic/greek

Western (northwest and doric) Eastern (Attic-Ionic, Aeolic, Arcado-Cyprian)

What was the dominant dialect of Hellenic

Attic

examples of hellenic texts

Vase attic inscriptions and Iliad and Odyssey

Albanian

15th century, Gheg (north) and Tosk (south)



Celtic

5th century, Galvish (extinct), Insular Celtic

Insular Celtic

Goidelic, Britannic

Goidelic

4th century, Irish, Scots, Gaelic, Marx (extinct), Welsh

Britannic

Welsh, Cornish, Breton

Italic

Estruscan, Oscan, Umprian, Latin, Romance languages, Rhaeto-Romansch, Sardanian, Walloon

Romantic Languages

French, Italian, Spanish, Romanian

Germanic

East, West, North

East Germanic

all extinct, Gothic

Bishop Ulfing

translated bible to Gothic, invented special alphabet

North Germanic

Norse, Norwegion, Icelandic, Faroge, Swedish, Danish

examples of North Germanic

12th century - extensive texts


3rd century - runic inscriptions

Western Germanic

high German and Low German (geographically labeled)



High German

8th century, yiddish

Low German

7th century, Dutch, Afrikans, Luxemburgian, Friscan, English

IE to GMC

3000 BC (IE) - 100 BC (CGMC)

prosidy

rhythmic alternations of strongly and weakly accented syllables

CIE Prosody

accent based on pitch differences, could occur on any syllable

Germanic Prosody

replaced pitch accent with strong accent based on loudness

Germanic 3 degrees of stress

Primary on root syllable, weak on following syllables, intermediate secondary stress on prefix and second element of compound words

CIE consonants

three types: stops, fricative, resonants

cie resonants

m,n,l,r,j,w

Germanic consonants

voiceless, voiced, voiced aspirated, bilabial, dental, velar, labiovelar

Grimm's law

Jacob Grimm, p, t, k, b, d, g, bh, dh, gh, became f, th, h, p, t, k, b, d, g



Werner's Law

exceptions to Grimm's law, Karl Werner, p, t, k, became b, d, g, when surrounded by voiced sounds and preceded by unaccented syllable, s became r

first consonant shift

effects of Grimm's law and Werner's law

ablaut

changes in vowels of roots indicated morphological catagories as tense, number and part of speech

CIE graphics

N/A

Germanic Graphics

futhorc

Ie morphology

nouns and adjectives took same inflection, nouns adj and pronouns inflected for case number and gender

case

use of separate inflections to express different grammatical functions

nominative

subject

genetive

possession

dative

indirect object

accusative

direct object

ablative

separation away from source

instrumental

agency or means

locative

place

vocative

person/thing being directly addressed

Germanic cases

fused ablative, locative, instrumental with dative

IE numbers

singular, plural, dual

Germanic numbers

lost dual

IE gender

masculine, feminine, neuter

Germanic genders

same as IE

Germanic noun stems

reduced from IE

Germanic adjectives

complicated to weak and strong categories

IE pronouns

cases, numbers, genders and persons

Aspects

completion, duration, and repetition of action

IE verb aspects

present, imperfect, aorist, perfect, pulperfect, future

Imperfect

continuing in past

aorist

referring to momentary action in past

Perfect

completed action

pulperfect

completed action in past

Germanic verbs

changed to tense, present or future and past

IE voices

active, passive and middle

Germanic voices

lost passive and middle

IE moodds

indicative, subjunctive, optative, imperative, injunctive

indicative

statements of fact

subjunctive

will

optative

wishes

imperative

commands

injunctive

unreality

Germanic moods

put subjunctive and injuctive under imperative

IE classes

had 7 classes distinguished by root

Germanic classes

kept IE 7 and added weak verbs

IE syntax

sov

germanic syntax

free word order

germanic lexicon

maintained many of IE and borrowed from non-IE

important changes between IE to Germanic

fixed stress on root syllable, Grimm and Werner's laws, strong vs. weak adjective, two-tense verb, large common vocab not IE, dental preterite verbs

oldest germanic example

runic transcription on urn

Enlightenment Period

scientific reason language came to be

Sound change

largely result with few exceptions, comparative method, 19th century project

comparative method

systematic comparison of language to identify relationships between them

19th century project

trying to reconstruct most languages

isolates

languages for which we have little evidence to group with other languages

Rhoticization

s becomes r in Verner's law when stress is on last syllable or in voiced environment