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19 Cards in this Set

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species specific

oogoniz are self renewing or limited

polar bodies go through apoptosis eventually in some

polar bodies

meiosis creates a totipotent egg and two polar bodies

in humans, chromosomes no centromeres serve as site for spindle formation - error prone system

what do polar bodies become?


scale insects?

parasitic wasps?

humans: disease assessment

scale inscets: bacteriome

wasps: wrap around embryos

other... parthenogenesis, endosperm


1. stimulated by copulation (rabbits)

2. periodic -estrus cycle

light stimulates the brain, releases GRH and then FSH and LH

these cause ovarian follicle cells to proliferate and secrete estrogen - hormonal behavior

ovarian follicle

periodically a group of follicles enter a growth stage

granulosa cells increase to many layers

Number of germ cells in ovary

1000 oogonia around birth, most die at birth

the rest become primary oocytes through meiosis


the ability of some organisms to recreate organs and limbs that have been removed or lost


time related deterioration of the physiological functions necessary for survival and reproduction

Different species have different regenerative capabilities

eg. mice - liver and digits

salamander - basically er'thang

Four mechanisms of regeneration

EPIMORPHISIS: Dedifferentiation and respecification

MORPHALLAXIS: Repatterning of existing structures


SC MEDIATED: regrowth


salamander limb reconstruction

forms only missing parts and no more

"knows" where has been severed

dedifferentiation, proliferation, respecificaiton

After amputation

a plasma clot forms

wound epidermis covers - proliferates to form AEC - apical ectodermal cap

(mammals would form scars and dermal closure)

dedifferentiation, proliferation, then regeneration blastema

then redifferentiate

Prolifferation signalling

FGF8, FGF10, Wnt3a

Fgf2- angiogenesis and mitosis promotor


Nerves release newt anterior gradient protein and glial gowth factor GGF

If blastema is denervated

forms smaller elements because of less mitosis - AEC depends on nerves for proliferation but not morphogenesis


synthesised by wound epidermis

forms PD AP gradient

activates prolifferation, down regulates differentiation

causes cells to respecify at a more proximal position - limb duplication if lab induces it

blastema consists of restricted progenitor cells as

cells retain their specification and commitment

muscle- muscle


cartilage- cartialge or dermal

Compensatory regeneration of the mammalian liver

remove a liver lob - remaining tissue enlarges to compensate

no dedifferentiation, only proliferation

each type of liver cell retains origional function

hepatocytes - first in regeneration

After removing lobe, hepatocytes are connected to eachother and can respond to morphogens

kupffer and stellate appear to monitor liver size

stellate cells release hgf, scatter factor and tgfb

mellaproteases digest ecm

loosening of hepatocytes, return to cell cycle and proliferation

second level of liver regeneration

if hepatocytes fail to regenerate

oval cells proliferate

can produce hepatocytes and bile ducts