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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Name of Three economic advisor's?

1. Vyshnegradsky




2. Witte




3. Stolypin

Years of Witte

up to 1903 for Finance and 1906 for Prime minister.

Years of Stolypin

up to 1911

Why did the Russian government encourage economic growth during the late nineteenth century?

- IMPACT OF CRIMEAN WAR-




External Factors:




1. Improve military capability


2. Increase in national prestidge




Internal Factors:




3. Reduce political discontent

1. Improve military capability

increased wealth could be used to improve Russian army and navy

2. Increased national prestige

Russia worried it would be left behind by other European nations - Westernisers needed change.




Britain, France and Germany are industrialising but Russia is still medieval.

3. Reduce political discontent

Improve living standards and prevent constant needs for political reforms.

How did the Russian government encourage industrial growth?

Through Capital (MONEY) > no exporters in Russia.




Government takes an active role to industrialise Russia and stimulate growth by state capitalism





How is the state capitalism achieved?

Taxing the peasants




Encouraging grain exports to bring in money




Foreign capitalists

What other measures were brought in to help the industry?

Protectionism: putting taxes on the imports of goods > good for infant industries




Putting the rouble on to the Gold Standard in 1897: prevents hyperinflation

What were the effects of these policies?

- Rapid Development - KNOWN AS the great spurt




- railway system extension


-growth of staples e.g coal, iron and oil


- double of workforce between 1887 and 1908


- growth in Moscow and St. Petersburg

What was happening by 1914?

There had been major expansions




HOWEVER, it was still industrialising and had not still fully industrialised as there were still largely agricultural.




Their production levels lagged behind other powers

Negative consequences of industrialisation?

Distress caused through 'starvation exports' due to the exporting of grain leaving a shortage




Anger/resentment towards Witte for using Foreign capitalists- felt like they were working for another country.




LED TO GROWTH OF W/C AND POLITICAL UNREST.

What did Witte do to alleviate distress?

Limits placed on employment of women and children and length of the working day.




also, appointment of factory inspectors.




UNREST CONTINUED= STRIKES, GROWTH FOR REVOLUTIONARY GROUPS.

Agriculture

Russia remained predominantly agricultural throughout the period




approx. 80% of population lived off the land

Reforms under Vsyhnegradsky and Witte regarding AgriC

Land Bank 1886




Resettlement on virgin land




BUT


Population growth = land hunger


continuation of the mirs


series of bad harvest during the 1890's


starvation exports and food shortages

Effects of AgriC changes

By 1913, Russia was the world's largest wheat production however rural distress and agrarian unrest continued culminating in the peasants uprising in 1905.

Reforms under Stolypin after 1905?

Main aim: encourage growth of the kulak class i.e private profit-making farmers




He hoped this would lead to:


economic modernisation


political stability





Reforms introduced under Stolypin

ending redemption payments




increased availability of virgin land




allowing more peasants to leave mirs




improved land bank

Other reforms introduced by Stolypin

Zemstvo given more control over local affairs




Government grants for education




Sickness and injury insurance planned

Effects of Stolypins introductions?

Some improvement in farming and increased production BUT:




-techniques remained backwards


-vast majority of peasants remained on mirs


-living and working conditions remained poor and life expectancy low


-resentment and unrest persisted