Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Name of Three economic advisor's?

1. Vyshnegradsky

2. Witte

3. Stolypin

Years of Witte

up to 1903 for Finance and 1906 for Prime minister.

Years of Stolypin

up to 1911

Why did the Russian government encourage economic growth during the late nineteenth century?


External Factors:

1. Improve military capability

2. Increase in national prestidge

Internal Factors:

3. Reduce political discontent

1. Improve military capability

increased wealth could be used to improve Russian army and navy

2. Increased national prestige

Russia worried it would be left behind by other European nations - Westernisers needed change.

Britain, France and Germany are industrialising but Russia is still medieval.

3. Reduce political discontent

Improve living standards and prevent constant needs for political reforms.

How did the Russian government encourage industrial growth?

Through Capital (MONEY) > no exporters in Russia.

Government takes an active role to industrialise Russia and stimulate growth by state capitalism

How is the state capitalism achieved?

Taxing the peasants

Encouraging grain exports to bring in money

Foreign capitalists

What other measures were brought in to help the industry?

Protectionism: putting taxes on the imports of goods > good for infant industries

Putting the rouble on to the Gold Standard in 1897: prevents hyperinflation

What were the effects of these policies?

- Rapid Development - KNOWN AS the great spurt

- railway system extension

-growth of staples e.g coal, iron and oil

- double of workforce between 1887 and 1908

- growth in Moscow and St. Petersburg

What was happening by 1914?

There had been major expansions

HOWEVER, it was still industrialising and had not still fully industrialised as there were still largely agricultural.

Their production levels lagged behind other powers

Negative consequences of industrialisation?

Distress caused through 'starvation exports' due to the exporting of grain leaving a shortage

Anger/resentment towards Witte for using Foreign capitalists- felt like they were working for another country.


What did Witte do to alleviate distress?

Limits placed on employment of women and children and length of the working day.

also, appointment of factory inspectors.



Russia remained predominantly agricultural throughout the period

approx. 80% of population lived off the land

Reforms under Vsyhnegradsky and Witte regarding AgriC

Land Bank 1886

Resettlement on virgin land


Population growth = land hunger

continuation of the mirs

series of bad harvest during the 1890's

starvation exports and food shortages

Effects of AgriC changes

By 1913, Russia was the world's largest wheat production however rural distress and agrarian unrest continued culminating in the peasants uprising in 1905.

Reforms under Stolypin after 1905?

Main aim: encourage growth of the kulak class i.e private profit-making farmers

He hoped this would lead to:

economic modernisation

political stability

Reforms introduced under Stolypin

ending redemption payments

increased availability of virgin land

allowing more peasants to leave mirs

improved land bank

Other reforms introduced by Stolypin

Zemstvo given more control over local affairs

Government grants for education

Sickness and injury insurance planned

Effects of Stolypins introductions?

Some improvement in farming and increased production BUT:

-techniques remained backwards

-vast majority of peasants remained on mirs

-living and working conditions remained poor and life expectancy low

-resentment and unrest persisted