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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the pressure or resistance against which the ventricles must pump to eject blood?
Blood flows from the left atrium through which valve into the left ventricle?
MITRAL valve
What coronary artery supplies the SA node and AV node in the most of the population?
What sensors in the internal carotid arteries and aortic arch detect changes in the concentration of hydrogen ions (pH)?
What results when the heart’s demand for oxygen exceeds its supply from the coronary circulation?
In an adult, what is the normal duration of QRS complex?
.04-.12 sec
On the ECG, the time necessary for the spread of an electrical impulse through the AV node, bundle of His, right and left bundle branches, and the Purkinje fibers is reflected by____?
QRS Complex
What is the inherent rates for the Sinoatrial node? Atrioventricular junction? , and the Ventricles?
SA= 60-100 impulses per min
AV= 40-60 impulses per min
Ventricles 20-40 impulse per min
What are the four properties of cardiac cells?
1.Automaticity: ability of cardiac pacemaker cells to create an electrical impulse w/o being stimulated from another source
2. Excitability (irritability): the ability of cardiac muscle cells to respond to an outside stimulus (chemical, mechanical, or electrical)
3. Conductivity: ability of a cardiac cell to receive an electrical impulse & conduct it to an adjoining cardiac cell
4. Contractility: ability of myocardial cells to shorten in response to an impulse
What are the six steps used in ECG rhythm analysis?
1. Assess rate, 2. Assess rhythm/regularity, 3. ID & examine P waves, 4. Assess intervals; evaluate conduction (PR interval, QRS duration, QT interval), 5. Evaluate overall appearance of rhythm (ST-segments, T waves), 6. Interpret rhythm & evaluate its clinical significance
What represents total ventricular activity- the time from ventricular depolarization to repolarization?
What are the specialized cells of the heart’s electrical conduction system capable of spontaneously generating and conducting electrical impulses?
What are bipolar limb leads?
Ecg leads that have a positive and negative electrode. Each lead records the difference in electrical potential btwn two selected electrodes. Leads I, II III are called standard limb leads or bipolar leads
What are unipolar limb leads?
Leads that consists of a single positive electrode and a reference point. Aka unipolar limb lead, augmented limb lead
The reference point (/c zero electrical potential) lies in the center of the heart’s electrical field (left of the interventricular septum and below the AV Junction)
What is the ECG criteria for a sinus rhythm?
a. Rate: 60-100 bpm
b. Rhythm: P-P interval regular, R-R interval regular
c. P waves: Positive (upright) in lead II, one precedes each QRS complex, P waves look alike
d. PR interval: 0.12-0.20 seconds & constant from beat to beat
e. QRS duration: 0.10 seconds or less unless an intraventricular conduction delay exists
What is the pacemaker with an intrinsic rate of 20-40bpm?
What is the normal rate for sinus rhythm?
60-100 bpm
Which medication may be used to increase heart rate if the QRS is narrow and the patient is symptomatic?
Which medications may be administered to the slow heart rate and decrease myocardial oxygen demand?
What is the difference between sinus rhythm and sinus bradycardia?
a. Sinus rhythm rate: 60-100 bpm
b. Sinus bradycardia: rate <60 bpm
What waveforms resemble the teeth of a saw or picket fence before the QRS?
What irregularly irregular ventricular rhythm, has no identifiable P waves?
What is a common complaint in a patient with a rapid heart rate?
What are the three main ECG findings associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome?
Short PR interval
Delta wave
Widening of the QRS
Why do patients who experience atrial fibrillation have an increased risk of having a stroke?
b/c the atria doesn't contract effectively expelling all of the blood, blood may pool within the atria forming clots. Clots may dislodge on its own or b/c of conversion to a sinus rhythm. A stroke can result if a clot moves from the atria to lodge in a brain artery.
What is retrograde conduction?
The propagation of depolarization from the ventricles to the atria–ie, VA conduction
What is a beat originating from the AV junction that appears earlier than the next expected sinus beat?
What is the name given to a dysrhythmia that originates in the AV junction with a ventricular rate between 61-100bpm?
What are the four reasons why the AV junction may assume responsibility for pacing the heart?
a. SA node fails to discharge (such as in sinus arrest)
b. An impulse from the SA node is generated but blocked as it exits the SA node (such as in SA block)
c. The rate of discharge of the SA node is slower than that of the AV junction (such as a sinus bradycardia or the slower phase of a sinus rhythm)
d. An impulse from the sa node is generated and is conducted through the atria but is not conducted to the ventricle ( such as AV block)
What is an absence of electrical activity on the cardiac monitor?
What is chaotic rhythm associated with no breathing or pulse?
What is a pattern in which every other beat is an ectopic beat?
Explain the difference between a PVC and a ventricular escape beat.
A PVC is premature and occurs before the next expected sinus beat.
While a ventricular escape beat is late, occurring after the next expected sinus beat
What are four common causes of premature ventricular complexes?
Normal variant, hypoxia, stress/anxiety, exercise, digitalis toxicity, acid-base imbalance, myocardial ischemia, electrolyte imbalance, CHF, increased sympathetic tone, acute MI, stimulants, meds (sympathomimetics, cyclic antidepressants, phenothiazines)
What are AV block that often progresses to a third-degree AV block without warning?
What AV block is characterized by regular P-P intervals, regular R_R intervals, and a PR interval with no consistent value or pattern?
What AV block characterized by a PR interval greater than .20 seconds and one P wave for each QRS complex?