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57 Cards in this Set

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Meridians are farthest apart from each other at

The Equator

Traveling east in the continental US, time becomes progressively later because of

The Earth's rotation from west to east as viewed looking down on the North Pole



The Earth rotates through 15 degrees of longitude per hour. Show how this number is derived

15 degrees X 24 hours = 360 days a year

Correct set of coordinates

35 degrees N latitude, 118 E longitude

Map scale 1:24,000. How many miles are in a distance represented by 30 inches on the map?

11.36. ((24,000X30)/12)/5280

The starting point or zero reference for longitude is the

Prime Meridian

What happens to the time and date when you cross the Int. Date Line W-->E.

The time stays the same, but you jump one day ahead.

How long is the typical day on an equinox?

12 hrs.

If you know the day of the year, you can use an analemma to look up...

Declination of the sun

What are three important factors in determining the actual daily insolation at the Earth's surface?

Day length, angle of incidence of incoming radiation, obstruction of the atmosphere

Compute the solar angle. Declination of the sun is 22 degrees south latitude. Location at 42 degrees north latitude.

Arc Distance: 42+22= 64


Solar Angle: 90-64= 26

T/F.When the sun's rays strike perpendicular to the Earth's surface, insolation has the shortest possible travel through the atmosphere, resulting in relatively little decrease in intensity.

True.

3 factors influencing temperature patterns

Land-Water contrasts, latitude, wind patterns

T/F. If latitude were the only control of the Earth's surface air temperature, isotherms would run perpendicular to lines of latitude.

False.

As a parcel of air rises in Earth's atmosphere, it

Encounters lower pressure and expands

Rising saturated air cools more slowly than rising unsaturated air because of

Release of latent heat as water vapor condenses to liquid water.

Explain why annual temperature range increases as latitude increases

Variation in insolation due to the tilt of Earth's axis either toward or away from the sun, depending on the season and hemisphere.

What season does proximity to a cold ocean current have the greatest effect on Los Angeles' temp. profile in comparison to Phoenix?

Summer, the ocean cools the area with cold currents, acting as a natural AC. Allows temp. to remain more constant rather than heating immensely as it does in Phoenix.

Line connecting points of equal elevation are called

contour lines

The elevation of the top of a hill is usually estimated by

Adding one-half the contour interval to the highest elevation contour shown.

T/F. When crossing a stream, a contour line makes a "V" that points downhill to show you where the water is going.

False. The "V" points uphill, showing where the water is coming from.

What does a 7 1/2 minute quadrangle map represent?

7 1/2 minutes of latitude and 7 1/2 minutes of longitude.

Vertical exaggeration of a topographic profile with a horizontal scale of 1 inch=180 feet and vertical scale of 1 inch=60ft

3. 180/60.

On a USGS quadrangle map, the delineation arrow shows...

The different between true north and magnetic north.

In the U.S. Public Land Survey System

a township is divided into 36 sections

Stereograms come from...

Photographs taken from an airplane with a camera pointing directly down.

Describe what is meant by luster of a mineral and give 2 basic categories of luster used in mineral identification.

Luster is a metal-like shine or sheen.


Metallic: metally shine


Non-Metallic: dull or glassy

What mineral reacts with hydrochloric acid?

Calcite

T/F. Minerals are composed of rocks.

False.

3 types of plate boundaries

Divergent, convergent, transform

What type of plate boundary would you expect to find the youngest crust?

Divergent.

Rocks that crystallize from a magma

Igneous

Igneous rocks whose fabric is medium to coarse grained are called

Intrusive

Igneous rocks are classified according to their _____ and ______.

Composition and fabric (texture).

Given obsidian, granite, pumice and tuff. One rock is medium-coarse grained, has few dark minerals, and has quartz are dominant mineral.

Granite.

What is true regarding the chemical makeup of igneous rocks?

The higher the iron content of an igneous rock, the darker it will be.


As the silicon content of an igneous rock increases, so do the levels of sodium, potassium and generally aluminum.


Silicon-rich igneous rocks are generally not as heavy as silicon-poor rocks.

What is most important in determining the type of eruption from a volcano and the shape of the volcanic mountain resulting from the eruption?

Mineral composition of the magma in the volcano.

T/F. Pyroclastic rock is a good indicator for a shield volcano.

False.

A gradient of 1800ft/mile means that

For every mile you walk horizontally, you increase 1800 feet in elevation.

T/F. Reverse and overthrust faults result from extension forces that pull apart the landscape.

False.

Define horst and graben.

Horst: mountain block between to parallel down-dropped blocks.


Graben: block of land is down dropped between two roughly parallel faults.

What type of fault has the least vertical displacement?

Strike-slip

What type of mass wasting entails the very slow downslope movement of the surface layer of a hillside?

Soil creep.

What is the most likely process for producing an alluvial fan at the mouth of a canyon in the western US?

Slump

Sedimentary rocks comprise about __% of the rocks exposed on land

75%

T/F. A sedimentary rock is termed "clastic" only if it contains rock fragments that can be seen with the naked eye

False

Sequence of processes for generating sedimentary rock

breakdown of rock --> transportation --> deposition --> lithification

Sediments making up sedimentary rocks are produced by the breakdown of rocks at the Earth's surface by the agents of

Weathering and erosion

The most important agent of erosion on the Earth's land surface is

Running water

What stream order would result from the joining of a third-order and fourth-order stream?

Fourth-order stream

In the most well established systems, there will be ______ first-order streams than all other orders combined, and each successively higher order will contain ________ streams.

More, fewer

As stream order increases from first to second to third, the stream gradient

Decreases

As a river meanders in it's floodplain

Deposition takes place on the outside bank

Sequence of floodplain processes

Meandering river --> oxbow lake --> oxbow swamp --> meander scar

As a magmatic body comes into contact with cooler rock, ________ occurs.

Contact metamorphism.

Metamorphic foliation refers to

The appearance of sheets or bands that parallel one another in metamorphic rock

What are the principle factors influencing the creation of metamorphic rocks?

Heat, pressure, chemically reactive fluids