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13 Cards in this Set

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** Basic tenets of Futurism


1)attempt to rescue the atrical art form a museum -like atomosphere

2) direct conffrontation and intermingling of performers and audience

3)the exploitation of modern technology to create multimedia performances

4) use of simultaneity and multiple focus

5)an antiliteray and alogical bias

6)breaking down of barriers between arts

**Basic tenets of Social Realism

relating it to the time as closely as possible.

Influences on Futurism and contemporary theatre****


3 categories of theatre in Nazi Germany****

Nazi Theatre-- a lot of the artist went into personal exile when Hitler came to power, there were 3 particular categories of theatre during this time:

The Standard theatre,

The Jewish Theatre,

and The New National Art Theatre.

expressionism and dada disappears when Nazis come to power

Standard Theatre-- entertainment for the masses, traditional theatre practices. The only change was there was a No Non Aryan actors.

Jewish Theatre-- sanctified by Nazi Government, separation for Jews in society , and became a great propaganda for the Jewish too look good. The New National Art (Blut und Bode-- translates to Blood and Soil) about the blood of the people and the soil of Germany. Theatre to demonstrate the ideology of the Nazi political. Focused on dramanic myth and folklore, showing Germany's great past. Huge cast, lots of spectacle showing power and prestige . Represented the Nazi party.

Theatre of Cruelty ****

Antonin Artaud

-in order to achieve its ends it sought to force the audience to confront itself. Thus, the cruelty he advocated is not primarily physical but moral or psychological.

-intention to operate directly on the nervous system

-replacement of traditional theatre buildings with remodeled barns, factories or airplane hangars.

-wished to place the audience in the center of the action by locating the acting areas in corners, on overhead catwalks, and alond the walls.

-lighting was the "vibrating shredded" effect and in sound he favored shrillness, abrubt changes in volume and use of the human voice to create harmonies and disonances

-wanted to assault the audience, to break down in resistance, to purge it morally and spiritually, and he sought to do this through devices "addressed first of all to the senses rather than to the mind"

****Federal Theatre Project

The Depression motivated the creation of a unique experiment, which was established in 1935 to combat unemployment. Headed by Hallie Flanagan Davis, at its peak employed 10,000 persons in 40 states.

It is mainly remembered for developing the Living Newspaper" a cinematic form which integratedfactual datat with dramatic vignettes.

-Characters raising questions about a current problem, led through background and possible solutions.

-dialogue was taken from speeches, newspapers stories,or other documents

-Motivated the formation of the Mercury Theatre in 1937, it also prompted african american theatre, which, though not extensive between the wars, was laying the foundation for later developments

****basic tenets of Existentialsim

was a philosophical outlook attracted considerable attention through essays and plays written by Jean Paul Sartre, a philosopher and novelist who turned to drama in 1943.

1)denying the existence of God, fixed standards of conduct, and verifiable moral codes.

- human beings are "condemed to be free" thus people must choose their own values and live by them, for "man is only what he does, Man becomes what he chooses to be"

basic tenets of Absurdism*****

irrational world and then went on to create order out of chaos

plays had dramatic action that developed linearly through cause and effect

tended to consentrate upon irrationality of human experience without suggesting any path beyond.

employing a succession of episodes unified merely by theme or mood instead of a cause -effect relationship, they arrived at a structure paralleling the chaos which was their usual dramatic subject

sense if heightened by juxtapositions of inconguous events producing seriocomic and ironic effects.

viewed language as the major rationalistic tool, often demonstrated it inadequacy and subordinatied it to nonverbal devices

****characteristics of Harold Pinter Play

1) everyday situations gradually take on an air (feeling of mystery or creepy)

2)unexplained unrevealed or ambiguous motivation or background information

3)authentic seeming natural though carefully written dialogue

4)silence is an integral part of language, also uses it as a strategy for characters to corrupt the vulnerability

5)at first everything seems amusing or pleasant , gradually the tone changes to anxiety, fear, stress, as characters confront predicament or seek to defend themselves against unknown danger.

characteristics of Golden Age of Musical and how it changed after 1968*****

Musicals began to change around 1968, whereas before there were lead roles with chorus, and vocation with tuneful songs. However, after 68' there is less a distinction of characters, more about the ensemble, and happy endings don't always happen. Musicals were message oriented. the musical HAIR, introduced sex and nudity to the musical stage.

two particular musical writers:

Stephen Sondheim-- very conceptually driven plays, looks ironically at human behavior and social values through his musicals. Company & Sweeney Todd, Sunday in the Park with George, Into the Woods.

Andrew Loyd Webber-- Jesus Christ Superstar-- staging is very tech heavy, Avita-- another famous musical, Cats-- based upon T.S. Elliots book, Phantom of the Opera, Miss Sygone

tenets of Poor Theatre ****

Grotowski's concept

-by gradually eliminating whatever proved superfluous, we found that theatre can exist without make up , without costumes, and screen play, without seperate performance space, without lighting amd sound effect.

-it cannot exist however without the actor spectator relationship of perfeptual , direct, "live communication"

-it challenges the notion of theatre as a synthesis of disparate creative disciplines

----Jerzy Grotowski

*****how and why censorship ended in England 1968


****Basic tenets of Postmodernism and Deconstruction

Postmodernism- undisturbed by lack of consistency or continutiy. they allowed disparities to exist with out seeking to mask them and they juxtaposed styles and moods that previously would have been considered incomparible or inconsistent.

boundaries were breached between the sexes, the arts,, cultures, dramatic form, and performance style

-Poststructuralism argued that it is impossible to think about any subject without language, that language makes consciousness and thoughts possible. Statements and categories are haunted by what they suppress or ignore, therefore a supplement of meaning is always left over.