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70 Cards in this Set

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abdominal cavity

contains GI tract beyond esophagus (stomach and intestines)


fascia

layer of connective tissue covering muscle


below peritoneum in abdominal cavity

greater omentum

hanging sheet of mesentary (hangs from lower edge of stomach, covers small intestine)

mesentary

two-layered sheet of peritoneum


greater omentum and mesentary attached to small intestines to help hold them up

peritoneal cavity

space in abdomen enclosed by peritoneum

peritoneum

serous membrane that lines abdominal cavity

enteric nervous system

distinct nervous system responsible for controlling smooth muscle in gut


located in walls of GI tract


responsible for peristalsis

gastrointestinal tract

stomach, small intestine, large intestine

mucosa

2 layers


-thick, stratified epithelium with goblet cells


-deeper layer with thin sheet of smooth muscle

muscularis externa

2 layers of smooth muscle


contract rapidly - peristalsis


surrounded by serous membrane

smooth muscle patterns of movement

peristalsis: wave of contraction shooting bolous of food down esophagus/GI tract


segmentation: churning/grinding

amylase

in saliva


breaks down carbohydrates before they get to the stomach


destroyed in stomach

esophagus

-directly posterior to larynx


-mucosa and muscularis externa

lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

opens to let food into stomach


prevents acid from shooting up esophagus

pharynx

anal sphincters

internal and external

chyme

food mixed with saliva from the mouth

lacteal

lymph vessels into which tiny lipid droplets diffuse - carry them into lymphatic system (lymph ducts)

large intestine

last part of GI tract


chyme goes from ileum into large intestine


rectangular shape


digestion is bacterial


main job is absorption of water


muscularis externa has circular and longitudinal fibers, but longitudinal ones are collected into 3 bands called taenae colitension of these fibers pulls colon into bulges - haustra - variable-sized tube (can expand to store feces)


no villi, abundant glands for mucus secretion

cecum

receives chyme, from which hopefully almost all nutrients have been extracted, thru ileocecal valve

ascending colon

right side of rectangle, first part is cecum


digests things we can't



trasverse colon

horizontal part of colon

descending colon

after transverse colon

sigmoid colon

before rectum

rectum

has 2 sphincters to defecate

haustra

as water is removed, chyme turned into feces, stored here

ilocecal valve

sphincter valve that separates small and large intestine


limits reflex into ileum

taenie coli

muscularis externa has circular and longitudinal fibers, but longitudinal ones are collected into 3 bands called taenae colitension of these fibers pulls colon into bulges - haustra - variable-sized tube (can expand to store feces)

small intestinal mucosa

highly specialized epithelium to absorb nutrients


epithelium extends up into many tiny fingers called villi - purpose is to increase surface area in contact with chyme


epithelial cells live 3-6 days

parts of small intestinal mucosa

cyrpt: deep indentation b/t villi


at bottom are germ-killing cells


villi: purpose is to increase surface area in contact with chyme villi cover circular folds and valleys between folds, like grass on hills


villi get taller in jejunum, then shorter, then disappear in ileum. also have goblet cells

more on small intestinal mucosa

has epithelial cells that absorb nutrients (amino acids, simple sugars, lipid droplets; vitamins/minerals) from chyme and release into interstitial fluid, where they pass freely into capillaries

duodenum

first part of small intestine


shortest part


circular folds that never get flattened out because duodenum not supposed to expand


pH of 6


acid neutralization, some digestion, some absorption

jejeunum

structure and function same as duodenum


taller villi


does most absorption



ileum

last part - same structure and function


shorter villi, eventually disappear


longest part

chyle

fatty lymph in lacteals that flows to venous system (subclavian vein)

circular folds

increase surface area in small intestine for more chyme absorption


never get flattened out

gastric juice

hydrochloric acid and pepsin (enzyme that digests proteins)


secreted by stomach (mucosa)

gastric gland

deepest part of infolded mucosa


cells here secrete gastric juice

gastric pit

crevice in folded mucosa where gastric glands lie

mucosa of stomach

inner layer of stomach


has folds called rugae to allow stomach to expand

pepsin

enzyme released in stomach to absorb proteins (part of gastric juice)


comes from pre-cursor converted by HCl

pyloric sphincter

lets chyme from stomach into small intestine


doesn't let in much at a time


powerful, made of smooth muscle

rugae

ridges and folds in stomach mucosa that help stomach expand

bile

needed for fat digestion, release into duodenum when needed


emulsifies fat in small intestine - breaks down fat into tiny droplets which epithelial cells are able to take up and pass through into interstitial fluid

bile duct

carries bile from gall bladder to duodenum

central vein

in middle of liver lobule


converge to carry blood out of liver into inferior vena cava

cholesterol

small, high-density lipid packets


repackaged and excreted in bile salts

cholesterol and fat particles

HDL

LDL

VLDL

chylomicron

gall bladder

stores bile

hepatic portal system

carries blood to liver from entire digestive track

hepatic triad

hepatic portal vein (branch of)


Hepatic artery (branch of)


bile duct

hepatic portal vein (branch of)

brings blood in


product of superior mesentaric vein and splenic vein


blood loaded with nutrients from small intestine (except for lipid)


run with mesentaric arteries

hepatic artery proper (branch of)

brings blood in

bile duct (branch of)

bile out of gall bladder to duodenum

hepatocyte

liver made up of hexagonal structures made of sheets of liver cells called hepatocytes


nutrients absorbed into them, are processed: lipids, amino acids, sugars, also waste removal

liver lobule

hexagonal structures in liver


blood enters lobule by way of a portal triad

hepatopancreatic sphincter

entry site to duodenum for bile and pancreatic juice

pancreatic juice

has enzymes for digestion of: starch, protein, lipid, DNA/RNA


has Na biocarbonate which lowers acidity

bariatric surgery

install gastric band, tighten or loosen it to make stomach smaller


roux-en-Y procedure problematic

cirrhosis of liver

most common liver damage


hepatocytes die are are replaced by fibrous scar tissue


caused by excess alcohol consumption or Hep B/C

GERD (gastrointestinal reflux disease)

stomach acid backing up into esophagus (acid reflex)


can cause lesions of mucosa of esophagus - cancer possible

H. Pylori

peptic ulcers occur usually due to too much acid in stomach and a bacterium called h. pylori - eats away at epithelial lining and causes ulcer

peptic ulcer

most serious if acid continues eating through layers of stomach so that there's a hole and stomach acids leek into peritoneal cavity


risk factors: tylonal, caffeine, alcohol

duodenal ulcer

acid in chyme too high - shoots through pyloric sphincter


more common than peptic ulcer

gastric ulcer

ulcer in stomach (peptic ulcer)

small intestine

main 2 functions: digestion and absorption


19.5 feet long