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14 Cards in this Set

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Oesophageal constrictions


x3


+spinal levels

UOS - ~C6


Intersection with aortic arch and left main bronchus - ~T4


LOS - ~T10

Oesophageal vasculature

Upper third: inferior thyroid artery+vein


Middle third: intercostal arteries, azygous drainage


Lower third: left gastric artery, hepatic portal drainage

Duodenal segments

Superior - only intraperitoneal part, meets pyloric sphincter


Descending - ampulla of vater


Inferior


Ascending - to duodeno-jejunal flexure

Terms for peristaltic structures of small and large intestines

Small: pilae circulares




Large: haustra, formed by action of longitudinal taeniae coli

Specialised small intestine cells and functions


x4

Enterocytes line the villi and are involved in digestion and absorption


Goblet cells secrete mucus for protection and lubrication


Endocrine cells in the crypts secrete factors regulating gut function (CCK, secretin, motilin)


Paneth cells in the crypts secrete antimicrobial agents (defensins, lysozyme)

Intraperitoneal organs

Liver,


stomach,


ileum,


superior duodenum,


transverse colon,


sigmoid colon

Retroperitoneal organs

Ascending colon


Descending colon


Descending, inferior, and ascending duodenum


Pancreas


Rectum

Foregut organs


+blood supply


+innervation

Stomach


Superior duodenum


Liver


Pancreas


Spleen




(Coeliac artery)



Midgut organs


+blood supply


+innervation

Descending, inferior, and ascending duodenum


Small intestine


Caecum, ascending and transverse colon




(Superior mesenteric artery)

Hindgut organs


+blood supply


+innervation

Descending and sigmoid colon


Rectum


Upper anal canal




(Inferior mesenteric artery)

Features of liver anatomy


Lobes and ligaments

Right, left, quadrate (inf.) and caudate (s.) lobes


Falciform ligament (anterior, median)


Ligamentum teres (containing portal triad)


Coronary ligament, around bare area

Peritoneal structures


x5

Lesser omentum - between liver and stomach


Epiploic foramen, from greater to lesser sac


Greater omentum - from inferior gastric border over the lower abdomen


Transverse mesocolon - connecting TC to posterior abdominal wall


Mesentery - convoluted peritoneum supporting small intestine and sigmoid colon

Digestive enzymes/compounds origins


(5 origins)

Amylase - mainly parotid gland


Pepsin - gastric chief cells (as pepsinogen)


Intrinsic factor - parietal cells (allow B12 terminal ileal absorption)


Pancreas: trypsin (catalyses other pancreatic enzyme activation), chymotrypsin (proteolytic), carboxypeptidase (proteolytic), elastase - all as zymogens


Bile salts from liver (emulsify fat droplets into micelles)


Brush border: disaccharidases + peptidases

Secretion and function of


- secretin


- gastrin


- cholestokinin

Secretin - Duodenum, in response to low pH - Pancreatic secretion, inhibits gastric acid secretion and gastric motility


Gastrin - Gastric G cells in response to presence of food - Stimulates gastric acid secretion


Cholestokinin (CCK) - Duodenum, in response to fat in lumen - Gallbladder contraction, pancreatic secretion, inhibits gastric motility