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14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Oesophageal constrictions


+spinal levels

UOS - ~C6

Intersection with aortic arch and left main bronchus - ~T4

LOS - ~T10

Oesophageal vasculature

Upper third: inferior thyroid artery+vein

Middle third: intercostal arteries, azygous drainage

Lower third: left gastric artery, hepatic portal drainage

Duodenal segments

Superior - only intraperitoneal part, meets pyloric sphincter

Descending - ampulla of vater


Ascending - to duodeno-jejunal flexure

Terms for peristaltic structures of small and large intestines

Small: pilae circulares

Large: haustra, formed by action of longitudinal taeniae coli

Specialised small intestine cells and functions


Enterocytes line the villi and are involved in digestion and absorption

Goblet cells secrete mucus for protection and lubrication

Endocrine cells in the crypts secrete factors regulating gut function (CCK, secretin, motilin)

Paneth cells in the crypts secrete antimicrobial agents (defensins, lysozyme)

Intraperitoneal organs




superior duodenum,

transverse colon,

sigmoid colon

Retroperitoneal organs

Ascending colon

Descending colon

Descending, inferior, and ascending duodenum



Foregut organs

+blood supply



Superior duodenum




(Coeliac artery)

Midgut organs

+blood supply


Descending, inferior, and ascending duodenum

Small intestine

Caecum, ascending and transverse colon

(Superior mesenteric artery)

Hindgut organs

+blood supply


Descending and sigmoid colon


Upper anal canal

(Inferior mesenteric artery)

Features of liver anatomy

Lobes and ligaments

Right, left, quadrate (inf.) and caudate (s.) lobes

Falciform ligament (anterior, median)

Ligamentum teres (containing portal triad)

Coronary ligament, around bare area

Peritoneal structures


Lesser omentum - between liver and stomach

Epiploic foramen, from greater to lesser sac

Greater omentum - from inferior gastric border over the lower abdomen

Transverse mesocolon - connecting TC to posterior abdominal wall

Mesentery - convoluted peritoneum supporting small intestine and sigmoid colon

Digestive enzymes/compounds origins

(5 origins)

Amylase - mainly parotid gland

Pepsin - gastric chief cells (as pepsinogen)

Intrinsic factor - parietal cells (allow B12 terminal ileal absorption)

Pancreas: trypsin (catalyses other pancreatic enzyme activation), chymotrypsin (proteolytic), carboxypeptidase (proteolytic), elastase - all as zymogens

Bile salts from liver (emulsify fat droplets into micelles)

Brush border: disaccharidases + peptidases

Secretion and function of

- secretin

- gastrin

- cholestokinin

Secretin - Duodenum, in response to low pH - Pancreatic secretion, inhibits gastric acid secretion and gastric motility

Gastrin - Gastric G cells in response to presence of food - Stimulates gastric acid secretion

Cholestokinin (CCK) - Duodenum, in response to fat in lumen - Gallbladder contraction, pancreatic secretion, inhibits gastric motility