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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Rhetorical Effect
Refers to the response that the manner of writing, not the message, generates in the reader.
Objective Tone
Kepps the writer's personality and opinions out of the message
Informal Level
Informal writing resembles orderly, intelligent conversation
Concrete Words
A concrete word names or describes something that we can perceive with one or more of our five senses. Evoke precise vivid mental images
Directly compares two unlike things by the use of "like" or "as"
Level of Diction
Always choose language suited to your audience and purpose.
Word Meanings
Make sure the words you use mean what you think they do, so that inaccurate words will not distort your message
Values and emotional associations that accompany a word
Figurative Language
Uses concrete words in a nonliteral way to create sharply etched sensory images that catch and hold the readers attention
Expressions that have become flat and stale from overuse

Ex: Sick as a dog
Colloquial Language & Slang
Colloquial: The language of ordinary conversation between people of a particular region.
Slang: Informal nonstandard vocabulary
Sometimes called hyperbole, deliberately and drastically exaggerates in order to make a point
A special metaphor that assigns human qualitites or traits to something nonhuman: a plant, an abstraction, a nonliving thing
Mixed Metaphors
Inappropriate combinations that startle or amuse the reader
Reveals the author's attitude toward the topic and the reader
Intentionally states one thing but actually means something different or even opposite
Special Stylistic Techniques
Style of a piece of writing is its character or personality
Technical Level
Writing for others in the same field or for sophisticated nonspecialists. Writes on the technical level, a cousin to the formal level
Compares unlike things without using "like" or "as"
Makes an assertion in a humble manner without giving something it's due
Direct essential meaning: What the word always stands for
Other Attitudes
Sometimes you write merely to inform. Sometimes to persuade
Sexist Language
Unneeded information that dilutes or even demeans someone's accomplishments
Verbal obesity
Take the sting out of something unpleasant or add stature to something humble
Formal Level
Dignified and serious is suitable for important political, business, and academic occasions
Flawed Diction
Mixed Metaphors
Sexist Language