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12 Cards in this Set

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What are developmental disorders on?




What can they range from?




What happens if there are known genetic causes?




Give an example.




What happens if there are unknown, possible, multiple causes?




Give an example.

They are broad spectrum.




Disabling genetic conditions such as Angelman's syndrome or more specific conditions such as high-functioning autism.




Behaviour or physical concerns lead to genetic tests and confirmation of the disorder.




William's syndrome, as it is biologically defined.




Leads to extensive, clinical testing to find a diagnosis for the disorder and the diagnosis can change.




ADHD.

What is modularity?




What are these parts known as?




What does it say behaviour of a system depends on?




What can happen to individual modules?

A complex system which compromises a set of parts with different specialised functions.




Modules.




Interactions between specialised modules.




Can be damaged or repaired independently of the rest.

What is seen in many disorders?




What does this support the idea of?




What else does this support the idea of?

A selective impairment to only some functions.




That functions can be thought of as independent modules.




That they normally develop or fail to develop independently of each other.

Who introduced modularity?




Give 4 features that he says modules are.

Fodor 1983.




1. Domain-specific.


2. Fast processing.


3. Fixed neural architecture.


4. Information encapsulation.

What is evidence for modularity?




In what condition is this seen in?




What is an uneven cognitive profile?




What are the 2 implications of modularity in developmental disorders?

Uneven cognitive profiling.




Williams syndrome (visuospatial skills more affected than language).




Where some specific cognitive processes are severely impaired while others are unaffected or less impaired.




1. Need to understand how the module normally develops and what can cause this process to go wrong.


2. The theory can provide evidence for functions that are dissociable (similar to neurological patients).

Give examples of claims for modularity.




What is the alternative approach to modularity?




Who introduced it?

A module crucial for reading fails to develop in dyslexia, a Theory of the Mind module fails to develop in Autism, a module for editing intentions fails to develop properly in Tourette's syndrome and a module for syntax fails to develop properly in Specific Language Impairments.




Neuroconstructivism.




Karmiloff-Smith 1998.

What does the Neuriconstructivist approach aim to find?




What does it consider?




What does it emphasise?

Seeks more indirect, lower-level causes of abnormality than just impaired cognitive modules.




How simple/low-level impairments early on can lead to abnormal development of more complex cognitive functions.




Role of experience and the process of development itself in setting up the module in the first place.

What is ASD?




What is it characterised by?




Who first noted it?




What are the 3 areas of impairment?




How are they impaired in communication?




How are they impaired in social interaction?




How are they impaired in imagination?

Autism Spectrum Disorder.




Problems with social skills, communication and repetitive behaviours.




Kanner 1943.




Social interaction, communication and restrictive, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behaviour, interests and activities.




Delayed/lack of language, repetitive language, one-sided awkward conversation, limited pretend-play and atypical non-verbal communication.




Understanding facial expressions, don't make eye contact, limited sharing, lack of social/emotional reciprocity, lack of spontaneous, do not share enjoyment/interests.




Lack of/abnormality in symbolic play.

What is seen in their restrictive/repetitive behaviours?




Does it show high heritability?




How many people suffer?




What has there been found to be an increase in?




What are the 3 central issues?

They are preoccupied with restricted and narrow interests. They have rigid routine rituals and stereotyped motor behaviour.




Yes, shows genetic component because of multiple interacting genes.




62.6 per 10,000 people.




Earlier diagnosis and a widening of diagnostic criteria.




1. Theory of the Mind.


2. Executive Functions.


3. Weak Central Coherence.

What is their inability in TOM?




Who displayed this?




What did they do?




What else are they found to be impaired on?

Understand others' mental states, thoughts and opinions.




Baron-Cohen 1995, 2001.




Reading the mind in the eyes task.




Sally-Anne task and the Misinformation task (Smarties tube).

What executive function deficits do they have (5 things)?




Who studied this?




What did the study show?




What might this explain?




What are the 2 limitations?

1. Planning.


2. Inhibition.


3. Flexibility.


4. Attentional shifting.


5. Problem-solving.




Ozonff and Jensen 1999.




Tower of London task showed autistic people were worse at planning than controls.




Restrictive and repetitive behaviours.




1. Executive function deficits are not specific to ASD i.e. they are seen in ADHD, Tourette's, Williams syndrome and Conduct Disorder.


2. Does not explain the social impairments in ASD.

What did Frith 1989 argue?




What is their inability?




Who did the Navon Figures task?




What did they find?




Who did the Embedded Figures test?




What did they find?




What must be noted about weak central coherence?




What is a problem with this explanation?




What 2 things can be concluded from ASD?




What is its link to modularity?




What is the issue with linking it to modularity?

That people with autism focus on detail rather than integrating information into meaningful wholes.




To experience wholes without full attention to the constituent's parts .




Reinhart et al 2000.




When a larger letter was composed of smaller letters, those with autism noticed the smaller letters before the larger whole.




Shah and Frith 1983.




Those with autism would notice the embedded figure in much smaller areas rather than the more blatant which those with normal cognitive function identify.




The style of processing is atypical but not necessarily a deficit.




It cannot explain the core social deficit.




The search remains elusive for...


1. a single environment or genetic cause.


2. a single type of underlying cognitive deficit.




Modularity would suggest a single impairment for the TOM module.




Although there is good evidence that TOM is impaired, other domains are also impaired.