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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Behavior that violates social norms but is not criminal
Deviance
A violation of a criminal law for which some governmental authority applies formal penalties
Crime
Pleasure versus Pain
Utilitarianism
Who said punishment should be public, prompt, and proportionate
Cesare Beccario
Has two key elements, use of scientific method and forces outside a person's control influence there behavior.
Positivism
Used facial features to tell if someone were a criminal
Physiognomy
Used shape of head to determine if someone were criminal
Phrenology
Criminals are physically similar to primitive humans
Atavistic Anomalies
His Cartographic school of criminology linked social factors to crime using statistical data
Adolphe Quetelet
Who said crime is normal, inevitable, and functional
Emile Pukheim
Law defines crime and laws are created out of general agreement about what should be illegal
Consensus View
Law is a tool of the ruling class and crime is politically defined
Conflict View
Moral entrepreneurs define crime and crimes reflect the opinions of people with social power
Interactionist View
A serious offense
Felony
Petty crime
Misdemeanor
Guilty Action
Actus Reus
Guilty Mind
Men's Rea
Pro's
Provides info on the number and characteristics of arrestees, nation wide sample, and includes homicides.
Con's
Unreported crimes are not represented, reporting error, difference in agency reporting methods, and dishonest reports
Uniform Crime Report
Pro's
Includes unreported crime, provides info on victims
Con's
Doesn't include homicide, does not provide information about the offender, under reporting, over reporting.
National Crime Victimization Survey
Pro's
Includes unreported Crime, Includes information about offender
Con's
reliance on people to tell the truth and remember, and non-responders may be a significant portion of the population.
Survey Research
Crimes committed to obtain desired good and services otherwise unattainable
Instrumental Crimes
Crimes committed as a result of rage, frustration, and anger against society.
Expressive Crimes
Prove why Crimes are more common in high-poverty area's
Higher incentive to commit crime, less to lose if they're caught, and anger and frustration at society
Prove Crimes are more commonly detected in high poverty areas
Difference in law enforcer tactics not criminal behavior, higher likelihood that citizens in lower classes will get arrested.
Repeat offenders responsible for a significant amount of all law violations.
Chronic Offenders
Early exposure to personal and social problems
Early Onset
Crime victims are more likely to commit crimes themselves
Cycle of Violence
Victims of crime are significantly more at risk for future of victimization
Chronic Victimizatoin
Charactistics that increase potential for victimization
Target vulnerability
Target Gratifiability
Target Antagonism
People initiate the confrontation that eventually leads to their injury or death
Victim Precipitation Theory
Victims actions provoke attack
Active Precipitation
Victims personal characteristics unknowingly provoke attack
Passive Precipitation
Peoples lifestyle increases exposure to criminal offenders, which increases odds of victimization
Lifestyle Theory
Theories of Victimization
Victim Precipitation Theory
Lifestyle Theory
Deviant Place Theory
Routine Activities Theory
Living in a socially disorganized high crime area increases likelihood of victimization
Deviant Place Theory
Volume and distribution of predatory crime are related to the intersection of three variables
Availability of suitable targets
Lack of capable guardians
Presence of motivated offenders
Routine Activities theory
Violent Crime against a person or crimes in which an offender attempts to steal an object directly
Predatory Crimes
an area where motivated offenders congregate
Hot Spots
People may not take advantage of criminal opportunity if they are bonded by to conventional peers
Moral Guardship