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40 Cards in this Set

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Roman - What is the Praetorian Guard? what did they do?

The emperor's household guard - They stopped riots in emergencies

Roman - How many men where in the Praetorian Guard?

9,000

How did the Romans prevent Crime?

The romans did very little to prevent crime, they focused mainly on policing crime - no police force

Roman - What are the vigiles

A group who patrol the streets at night, they tried to contain fires and chased slaves who tried to escape

Roman - Who are the Urban Cohort

The urban Cohort where a group of 3,000 soldiers who stopped riots and where meant to keep order. they did not patrol the streets

Roman - How did the romans police abroad?

Governors travelled the country and set up courts in towns


Magistrates ran these small local courts, dealing with minor offences


Legionaries policed towns and villages

Roman - Name 5 crimes

Theft, Arson, Robbing Temples, Selling underweight bread, attacking the emperor

Roman - Name 5 Punishments

Forced Castration, Stoning, Slavery, Crucifixion, the arena

Roman - What happened to criminal Patricians?

They could not be given the death penalty, instead they were exiled

Roman - How did Trials work?

Victims must collect their own evidence and present it to a judge. if the judge thinks their is enough evidence then a trial will be held with a lawyer for either side

Roman - What is the difference between a patrician and a plebian

Patricians are one of the main families in Rome, if you were a patrician you couldn't be given the death sentence. Plebians were ordinary citizens

Roman - What is the function of the Roman colliseum

The condemned would fight until killed as a means of entertainment for the onlookers.

Why did the romans back cartimandua but not Boudicca

Boudicca was not in the bloodline of a client monarch, cartimandua was.

Roman - how were Women treated

They were not equal and were to be controlled by a husband or their father.

Roman - What happened if soldiers lost a battle

They were decimated - random lot - excecution

Roman - How would slaves that killed their masters be punished

crucifixion

Anglo Saxon - what is wergild?

'Eye for an Eye, payment for the damage done'

Anglo Saxon - What are Tithings?

Groups of roughly 10 men, all over the age of 12, They raise the hue and cry when a criminal is seen

Anglo Saxon - what is the hue and cry

A cry for all around to seek out the criminal and to help catch him, this worked well as everyone knew one another

Anglo Saxon - how were trials done?

Local men and witnesses swore an oath and gave evidence




Trial by ordeal was used when there is a lack of evidence

Anglo Saxon - How were laws different in early anglo saxon times?

Blood feud - petty revenge back and forth for crimes committed


No policing


Wergilds

Anglo Saxon - Sanctuary

If someone on the run from the law seized to knocker at a church, they could not be arrested. if they confessed and swore to leave the country they would be made to leave the country by a specific route, with an 'A' for abjured branded on them

what is the over mighty subject

The stronger a king is, the fairer and more controlled his kingdom will be.

what is the benefit of clergy?

Anyone who was a member of the church could seek trial in a special church court which was presided over by the local bishop. punishments here were often much lighter. A test was used by reading a verse of the bible to see if you where a church man, this became known as the 'neck verse'

Early Modern - What is Vagrancy

the state of being a vagrant, meaning being unemployed, usually homeless. this was seen as a crime. this was often caused by high taxes

Early Modern - What is Heresy

The State of being a heretic, this means having a different religion to that of the current monarch. punishment for heresy was usually being burnt alive

Early Modern - Who was Matthew Hopkins

'Witchhunter general' one of the most famous witch hunters, from essex.

Early Modern - Why did people blame pestilence on Witchcraft

People looked for someone to blame in times of hardship, spinsters and widows were easy targets as nobody cared about them. As travel increased the word of witchcraft spread much faster. Puritan preachers were preaching about witches and the evil that they caused

Early Modern - Why did the witch trials begin to decline

Workhouses kept people out of poverty, reducing pestilence so they didn't have things to blame on the witches. Knowledge of the human body and science is growing, people begin to find rational explanations. scientific knowledge replaces superstition

Who were the main smugglers?

Farm labourers who were out of work. most people were involved

When did poaching become illegal?

The game act of 1671

what is another interpretation of highwaymen?

'Gentlemen Robbers'

Early Modern - what policing was used?

Night watchmen


Constables- normal villagers appointed for a year to help prevent and capture criminals

Early Modern - What increased in this period

The amount of petty theft and the number of crimes that were punishable by the death penaulty

how long did transportation to Australia take?

8 months

Why was the bloody code introduced

It was felt that harsh punishment would discourage people from committing crime

Why was transportation introduced?

It was a less harsh alternative to the bloody code and it would extend the british empire

Why was the police force introduced?

fear of crime, Constables and night watchmen were ineffective, large urban areas saw new criminal threats.

Who introduced the police force and when?

Sir. Robert Peel 1829

When did the police perform well, boosting popularity

the great exhibition