Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

a recurring compulsion to engage in an activity regardless of its bad effects
Capital punishment

the death penalty for a crime or offense


acting against the law

the idea that punishment should be of such a nature that it will put people off committing crimes

the act of judging people and their actions


due allocation of reward and punishment / maintenance of what is right


rules made by Parliament and enforceable by the courts


the idea that punishment should try to change criminals so that they will not commit crimes again


restore to normal life


being responsible for one's actions

the idea that punishment should make criminals pay for what they have done wrong

an act against the will of God
Do we need laws?


-know what to expect of each other

-no laws about business and deals would cause chaos, working without wages etc.

-protect weak from strong

-need laws to keep things organised

-without laws there would be anarchy


-restrict human freedom

-some countries have experimented with abolishing traffic laws and had fewer accidents

-people in small societies know how to treat each other without laws

Does there need to be a connection between laws and justice?


-if a law is unjust, people feel they have the right to break it

-unjust laws will dispute rather than unite society

-unjust laws do not fulfil purpose of rewarding hard working, protecting weak...

-people will campaign, causing social unrest

-could start civil wars


-main thing is that people know what the laws are

-as long as they work

-never be an agreement on what is just

Why is justice important for Christians?

-Bible says God is just and will reward the righteous and punish those who sin

-Christian churches have made statements about how Christians should work for justice

-New Testament says Christians should treat people fairly and equally

-Bible says people should be treated fairly and that God wants the world to be ruled justly

-World Council of Christians says all Churches should work for 'justice, peace and the integrity of creation'

-Jubilee research

Why is justice important for Muslims?

-Qur'an says Muslims should treat people fairly

-Qur'an says God is just

-Shari'ah is based on justice for everyone with everyone being treated equally

-charging interest is unjust

-as vicegerents of God, Muslims must treat everyone fairly

What are the laws on drugs and alcohol?


-illegal for under 5s to drink and to sell to under 18s

-parents can buy for 16s


-illegal to sell to under 18s

-illegal to smoke in indoor public places

-must have warnings on packaging

-cannot advertise or sponsor


-all classified drugs illegal

-class A most severe

Give reasons for and against retribution.


-criminals pay for what they have done in proportion to severity of crime

-criminals suffer

-punishes them

-values victim


-just as bad as criminal

-will not stop from reoffending

-condemned by sermon on the mount

Give reasons for and against deterrence.


-if thieves knew their hands would be cut off if they steal, they would not steal

-if people knew murderers would be executed, they will not murder


-criminals do not think they will be caught

-countries with death penalty have higher murder rates

-will not reduce stealing as poor need to survive

Give reasons for and against reform.


-only way to stop crime is to turn criminals into law abiding citizens

-most criminals have had a bad upbringing and do not know how to live without crime

-gives criminals education and qualifications, rehabilitation


-many criminals reoffend


-psychopaths cannot be reformed

Give reasons for protection.

-protects society from criminals

-capital punishment is good for murderers as they cannot kill again

-community services keeps vandals off streets

-long sentences keep criminals out of society

Give the social problems caused by alcohol, tobacco and drugs.


-social disorder

-large majority of deaths from falls, boating accidents, drownings and fire deaths caused by alcohols

-70% of murder victims and 40% of rape offenders had been drinking at time of incident

-50% of sex abusers are drink abusers


-forced to watch loved ones die slowly of unnecessary illnesses


-violence between gangs

-criminals as it is illegal

-expensive costs force people to crime (addiction)

-some become violent under influences

Give the health problems caused by alcohol, tobacco and drugs.


-increased risk of liver problems, heart disease, cancer etc.


-1 in 7 road deaths caused by alcohol


-increases risk of at least 50 medical conditions

-cancer, emphysema, bronchitis, coronary heart disease


-babies born lighter and weaker


-physical health destroyed

-deaths by infections, liver disease, intentional self harm

-mental illnesses

Should drugs and alcohol be governed by the law?


-so many social and health problems


-should be individuals choice

-laws prohibiting could cause organised crime

-Netherlands has decriminalised soft drugs and now has fewer drug problems

Explain Islamic attitudes towards drugs and alcohol.

-prohibited (haram)

-Qur'an says intoxicants are a means by which Satan takes people from God and praying

-Muhammad said every intoxicant is forbidden to Muslims

-Muhammad said several times that Muslims must not drink alcohol or have anything to do with the production of alcohol

-alcohol is a form of suicide as you are harming your body, suicide is forbidden

-Tobacco is banned by some Muslims as it harms the body, but Muslim lawyers have deemed it disliked (makruh) because it is not mentioned in the Qur'an

Explain different Christian attitudes towards drugs and alcohol

-All are against drugs as they are illegal

Accept alcohol and tobacco in moderation (i.e. Catholic, Baptist)

-first miracle of Jesus is turning water to wine at a wedding

-St Paul said Christians can drink but in moderation

-Jesus used wine at the last supper and told his disciples to follow the tradition

-wine in communion

Against (Pentecostal, Salvation Army)

-abusing God's temple

-Bible warns against drunkenness

-Bible teaches that alcohol damages judgement, inflames passion and invites violence

-many of these Christians work with recovering alcoholics

Give non religious reasons for and against capital punishment.


-values victims of murder



-protects society


-could kill innocent

-death penalty countries have higher murder rates

-murderers will kill more people at a time

-life imprisonment is worse, therefore more suitable

Explain Christian attitudes towards capital punishment.

Most are against

-eye for an eye is wrong in Christianity

-Jesus came to reform sinners

-life is sacred, only taken by God, sanctity of life

-most Christian churches made statements about condemning capital punishment

Some are for

-St Thomas Aquinas said protection of society is more important than reform

-Christian church used it in the past for heresy

-Bible gives death penalty for various offences

-some churches not retracted capital punishment statements

Explain Islamic attitudes towards capital punishment.

Islam allows for murder, adultery and apostasy

-punishment set by God in Qur'an

-Muhammad made several statements agreeing with capital punishment for said crimes

-Muhammad sent people to death when he ruled

-Shari'ah says that capital punishment is the punishment for said crimes

Some are against

-recommended by Qur'an by not compulsory

-agree with non religious arguments against

-family of murderer can accept blood money instead