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22 Cards in this Set

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What is covalent bonding?

Covalent bonding is when pairs of electrons are shared

What is a covalent bond formed between?

Two non metals


Describe covalent bonds with regards to (conductivity)

Covalent bonds cannot conduct electricity because there are no free electrons and no ions


Give 3 examples for covalent molecules?

- Water (H20)


- Ammonia (NH3)


- Hydrogen (H2)

What are normally the states of covalent compounds?




And what are the boiling points of these compounds?/

Gasses or liquids




With LOW boiling points

Why are giant lattice structures, like diamond, very strong?

Because they have strong covalent bonds


Each atom has many bonds



Describe the structure of Graphite?

Carbon atoms joined together in hexagonal shape


Carbon atoms form layers which can slide over each other (which makes it softer than diamond)


Each carbon atoms is joined to 3 others


Graphite conducts electricity (free electrons in the layers)







Describe the structure of Diamond?

Formed of carbon atoms, each carbon atom is joined to 4 others


Giant covalent lattice structure


Doesn't conduct electricity


High melting point

What is Buckminsterfullerene?

An alloptrope of carbon

What is the structure of Buckminsterfullerene?

A giant molecule made up of carbon atoms that form hexagons and pentagons (like a football)



What is Buckminsterfullerene used for/in?

Lubricants

List the 3 types of bonding in compounds?

Ionic boning


Covalent bonding


Polar covalent bonding

What is ionic bonding?

A type of chemical bond, that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions

What is ionic bonding between?

a metal and a non metal

Describe an ionic compound?

An ionic compound is made up of giant ionic lattices containing oppositely charged ions

Features of ionic compounds?

- High melting point


- High boiling point


- Conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water

Describe a simple molecular compound?

They consist of many molecules in which the atoms are joined together by strong covalent bonds


Their molecules are held together by weak forces

Features of a simple molecular compound?

- Low boiling point


- Low melting point


- Cant conduct electricity



What is the size of Nanoparticles?

1-100 nm in size

Factors of Nanoparticles?

- Metals form giant structures containing free electrons, making them GOOD CONDUCTORS of HEAT and ELECTRICITY

Give an example of an Ionic compound?

Sodium chloride

In relation to water, what are most molecular substances?

Insoluble in water