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163 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is consumer behaviour?

The study of the processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use or dispose of products, services, ideas or experiences to satisfy needs and desires

What are market segmentation strategies?

targeting a brand only to specific groups of consumers rather than to everybody

What does role theory do?

Takes the view that much of CB resembles actions in a play. As in a play, each consumer has the lines, props and costumes necessary to put on a good performance.

What are the three phases of CB process?




What is 'value in use'?

Value that is created before and after the exchange (consumption stage)

What is a consumer?

A person who identifies a need or desire, makes a purchase, and then disposes of the product

What are the 7 main types of Demographics?

Age, Gender, Family Structure, Social class/income, Ethnicity, Lifestyle, and Geography

What is relationship marketing?

The strategic perspective that stresses the long-term, human side of buyer-seller interactions

What is database marketing?

Tracking consumers' buying habits very closely and then crafting products and messages tailored precisely to people's wants and needs based on this information

What is popular culture?

Music, movies, sports, books, celebrities and other forms of entertainment consumed by the mass market

What are the four types of relationships a person may have with a product?

Self-concept attachment - user's identity

Nostalgic attachment - past self

Interdependence - part of daily routine

Love - Emotional bonds

What are four types of consumption activities?

Consuming as experience

Consuming as integration

Consuming as classification

Consuming as play


What are business ethics?

Rules of conduct that guide actions in the marketplace

The standards against which most people in a culture judge what is right and what is wrong, good or bad.

What universal values are part of business ethics?

Honesty, Trustworthiness, Fairness, Respect, Justice, Integrity, Concern for others, Accountability, and Loyalty

What is Deontology?

Acting according to universal moral duties without regard to the good or bad consequences of their actions

What is Teleology?

Notion that the ethically correct decision is the one that produces the best consequences

What is Consumerspace?

The ways consumers choose to interact with corporations

What is a need?

A basic biological motive

What is a want?

One way that society has taught us that need can be satisfied.

"We are taught to want Coca-Cola to satisfy thirst rather than goats milk"

What is the economics of information perspective?

Advertising is an important source of consumer information

What is culture jamming?

A strategy to disrupt efforts by the corporate world to dominate our cultural landscape

What is green marketing? Example?

When a firm chooses to protect or enhance the natural environment as it goes about its activities

Example: Reducing wasteful packaging

What is social marketing? Example?

Using marketing techniques to encourage positive activities and discourage negative activities

Example: Being sunsmart

What is deviant CB?

Refers to actions that violate the accepted behaviour in a consumer context and result in harm for other customers or the organisation

What is consumer terrorism?

Terrorism towards consumers such as herron withdrawn due to poisoning threat

What is addictive consumption?

A physiological/psychological dependency on products or services

What is compulsive consumption?

Repetitive shopping as an antidote to tension, anxiety, depression, boredom

What are consumed consumers?

People used or exploited, willingly or not, for commercial gain in marketplace.

E.g. Prostitution

What is the consumer sovereignty model?

The customer is always right - they make rational, informed choices.

What is the cultural power model?

Beware of the seller

What is the discursive power model?

Together we create - identifies the exchanges between customers and sellers as reciprocal

What is a paradigm?

Fundamental assumptions researchers make about what they are studying and how to study it

What is positivism (modernism)?

Paradigm that emphasises the supremacy of human reason and the objective search for truth through science

What is interpretivism (postmodernism)?

Paradigm that emphasises the importance of symbolic, subjective experience and the idea that meaning is in the mind of the person

What is consumer cognitions?

The acquisition, storage, transformation, and use of information

What is the cognitive/affective paradigm in CB?

Information Procession (thoughts/attributes)

Experiential (emotions & moods)

What is the Behavioural approach in CB?

Reinforcement & Habitat

What is sensation?

The functioning of our senses and the immediate response of our sensory receptors to basic stimuli such as light, colour, sound, odour and texture

What is perception?

The process by which these sensations are selected, organised and interpreted.

What is hedonic consumption?

The multisensory, fantasy and emotional aspects of consumers' interactions with products'

What is experiential marketing?

Opportunities to connect with consumers by engaging in a sensory way and drawing on the consumers' personal experiences

What are the five types of sensory marketing tactics?

Vision, Smell, Taste, Touch, Sound

What is exposure?

When a stimulus comes within the range of someone's sensory receptors. Consumers concentrate on some stimuli, are unaware of others, even go out of their way to ignore some messages

What are psychophysics?

The science that focuses on how the physical environment is integrated into our personal subjective world

What is the absolute threshold?

Minimum amount of stimulation detected on a sensory channel

What is the differential threshold?

Ability of a sensory system to detect changes/ differences between two stimuli. Minimum difference that can be deteceted between two stimuli is known as the j.n.d

What is Weber's Law?

The amount of change necessary to be noticed is related to the intensity of the original stimulus. The stronger the initial stimulus, the greate a change must be for it to be noticed.


What is augmented reality?

Refers to media that combine a physical layer with a digital layer to create a combined experience

What is subliminal perception?

Occurs when the stimulus is below the level of the consumer's awareness. There is little evidence that this can bring about desired behavioural changes

What is attention?

Refers to the extent to which processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus.

What is perceptual selection?

People attend to only a small portion of the stimuli to which they are exposed

What is experience?

The result of acquiring and processing stiumulation over time

What is perceptual defence?

People see what they want to (and vice versa)

What is adaptation?

The degree to which consumers continue to notice a stimulus over time.

What are factors that lead to adaptation?

Intensity, Duration, Discrimination, Exposure, Relevance

What are some stimulus selection factors?

Size, Colour, Position, Novelty

What is interpretation?

Refers to the meaning that we assign to sensory stimuli

What is stimulus organisation?

One factor that determines how a stimulus will be interpreted is its assumed relationship with other events, sensations or images.

What is the Gestalt closure principle?

States that people tend to perceive an incomplete picture as complete.

What is the Gestalt principle of similarity?

Consumers tend to group together objects that share the same physical characteristics

What is the Gestalt Figure-ground principle?

One part of a stimulus will dominate (the figure) and other parts will recede into the background (the ground).

What are semiotics?

Field of study that examines the correspondence between signs and symbols and their role in the assignment of meaning

What are the 3 components of a message?

Object: the product that focuses the message (McDonald's hamburgers)

Sign: the sensory imagery that represents the intended meanings of the object (Ronald McDonald)

Interpretant: the meaning derived (Something magical about McDonalds)

What is hyperreality?

The process of making real what is initially stimulation or 'hype'

What is a positioning strategy?

A fundamental part of a company's marketing efforts, as it uses elements of the marketing mix to influence the consumer's interpretation of its meaning

What is interpretation?

The meaning that we assign sensory stimuli

What is schema?

Set of beliefs to which the stimulus is assigned

What is priming?

Process by which certain properties of a stimulus will typically evoke a schema, which leads to consumers to evaluate the stimulus in terms of other stimulus they have encountered and believe to be similar

What is learning?

A relatively permanent change in behaviour caused by experience

What is incidental learning

Causal, unintentional acquisition of knowledge

What are behavioural learning theories?

Behavioural learning theories assume that learning takes place as the result of responses to external events.

What is classical conditioning?

Occurs when a stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own. Over time, this second stimulus causes a similar response because it is associated with the first stimulus

What is unconditioned stimulus, conditioned stimulus and conditioned response?

UCS: Naturally capable of causing a response

CS: Does not initially cause a response

CR: Response generated by repeated paired exposures to UCS and CS

What is stimulus generalisation?

The tendency of stimuli similar to a CS to evoke similar conditioned responses

What is stimulus discrimination?

When a UCS does not follow a stimulus similar to a CS

What are some strategies based on stimulus generalisation?

Family Branding

Product Line extensions

Look-alike packaging

What is instrumental conditioning?

Occurs as the individual learns to perform behaviours that produce positive outcomes and avoid behaviours that yield negative outcomes

What are the three ways IC occurs?

Positive Reinforcement

Negative Reinforcement


What is extinction?

When a positive outcome is no longer received, the learned stimulus-response connection will not be maintained

What are four reinforcement schedules?

Fixed-interval reinforcement

Variable-interval reinforcement

Fixed-ratio reinforcement

Variable-ratio reinforcement

What is the cognitive learning theory?

Stresses the importance of internal mental processes. Views people as problem-solvers who actively use information from the world around them to master their environement

What is instructional scaffolding and the three stages?

States that people learn based upon progressing through three stages:

Enactive representation (active-based)

Iconic representation (image-based)

Symbolic representation (language-based)

What is assimilation?

The process where we respond to the situation based upon existing knowledge

What is observational learning?

Occurs when people watch the actions of others and note reinforcements received for their behaviours.

What is memory?

A process of acquiring and storing information over time so that it will be available when needed

What are the three stages of memory?

Encoding stage: Information entered in a recognisable way

Storage stage: Knowledge integrated into what is already in memory and warehoused

Retrieval stage: The person accesses the desired information

What are the three distinct memory systems?

Sensory memory: very temporary storage of information we receive from our senses

Short-term memory: Working memory, limited period of time and limited capacity

Long-term memory: Can retain info for a long period. Elaborative rehearsal is required

What are activation models of memory?

Argue that different levels of processing occur depending on the nature of the processing task

What are associative networks?

Related information is organised according to some set of relationships

What is spreading activation?

A process that allows consumers to shift back and forth between levels of meaning

What is retrieval?

Process whereby information is recovered from LTM. Influenced by physiological, situational and viewing environment factors

What factors influence forgetting?


Retroactive Interference

Proactive interference

Part-list cueing effect

What are some problems with memory measures?

Response biases

False memories

Memory lapses

Memory for facts and feelings

What is a person's personality?

A person's unique psychological makeup and how it consistently influences the way a person responds to his/her environment

What is the difference between the psychodynamic approach and the developmental approach?

The psychodynamic is determined by genetics whereas developmental is learnt over time

What is the difference between nature and nurture?

Nature are aspects we are born with, nurture is how the world influences those aspects

What does the social comparison theory explain?

That siblings often seek to deliberately diferentiate themselves from each other

What is the Id?

Oriented toward immediate gratification. It is selfish, illogical and ignores consequences

What is the pleasure principle?

Behaviour is guided by the primary desire to maximise pleasure and avoid pain

What is the superego?

A person's conscience. It tries to prevent the Id from seeking selfish gratification

What is the ego?

The system that mediates between the Id and the superego.

What is the reality principle?

The ego finds ways to gratify the Id, which will be acceptable to the outside world.

What are some major motives for consumption?

Power, masculinity, security, eroticism, social acceptance, individuality, reward

Who described people as moving toward others (compliant), away from others (detached), or against others (aggressive)?

Karen Horney

Who proposed the theory that an individual's actions are motivated to overcome feelings of inferiority relative to others?

Alfred Adler

Who focused on personality development to reduce anxiety in social relationships?

Stack Sullivan


Who believed people are shaped by cumulative experiences of past generations? Emphasis on the collective unconscious, which create archetypes.

Carl Jung

What are archetypes?

Universally shared ideas and behaviour patterns created by shared memories

What is the trait theory?

An approach to personality that focuses on the quantitative measurement of personality facts

What are the 'Big 5' personality traits?

Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism

What is innovativeness?

The degree to which a person likes to try new things

What is materialism?

Amount of emphasis placed on acquiring and owning products

What is self-consciousness?

The degree to which a person deliberately monitors and controls the image of the self that is projected to others

What is susceptibility to interpersonal influence?

Likelihood of being influenced by other's opinions and behaviours

What is the need for cognition?

The degree to which a person likes to think about things

What is frugality?

Tendency to deny shot-term purchasing whims and resourcefully use what one already owns

What is the difference between an idiocentric and an allocentric?

Idiocentrics have an individualist orientation and allocentrics have a group orientation

What is brand personality?

The set of traits people attribute to a product as if it were a person

What are the five brand personality dimensions that resemble the Big 5 consumer personality traits?

Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, Sophistication, Ruggedness

What is animism?

The practice whereby inanimate objects are given qualities that make them somehow alive

What is the difference between level 1 and level 2 animism?

Level 1 people believe the object is possessed by the soul of the being and level 2 objects are anthropomorphized or given human characteristics

What is self-concept?

The beliefs a person holds about their own attributes and how they evaluate these qualities.

What are some attribute dimensions?

Content, positivity, intensity, stability over time, and accuracy

What is self-esteem?

Refers to the positivity of a person's self-concept

What is social comparison?

A process by which consumers evaluate themselves by comparing themselves with others

What is self-esteem advertising?

Change product attributes by stimulating positive feelings about the self

What is our ideal self?

A person's conception of how they would like to be?

What is our actual self?

A person's realistic appraisal of the qualities they do and do not possess

What is symbolic interactionism?

Stresses that relationships with other people play a large part in forming the self. "Who am I in this situation?"

What is the looking-glass self?

The process of imagining the reactions of others towards use.

What is self-consciousness?

A painful awareness of oneself magnified by the belief that others are watching intently

What is the symbolic self-completion theory?

Theory that suggests people who have an incomplete self-definition tend to complete this identity by acquiring and displaying symbols associated with it

What do self-image congruence models suggest?

Products will be chosen when their attributes match some aspect of the self

What is the extended self and four levels?

External objects that consumers consider a part of themselves.

1. Individual level: personal possessions

2. Family level: Residence and furnishings

3. Community level: Neighbourhood or town

4. Group level: Social groups

What is the difference between an autonomic decision and syncratic decision?

autonomic decisions are made by one family member whereas syncratic decisions are jointly made by the family

What are factors that determine the degree to which decisions will be made jointly or by one spouse?

Sex-role stereotypes

Spousal resources


Socioeconomic status

What is motivation?

The processes that lead people to behave as they do. Occurs when a need arises that a consumer wishes to satisfy.

What is a drive?

The degree of arousal present due to a discrepency between the consumer's present state and some ideal state.

What is the difference between motivation strength and direction?

Strength is the pull it exerts on the consumer, direction is the particular way the consumer attempts to reduce motivational tension

What is the drive theory?

Focuses on biological needs that produce unpleasant states of arousal (e.g. grumbling stomach)

What is the expectancy theory?

Behaviour is pulled by expectations of achieving desirable outcomes - positive incentives - rather than pushed from within. Focuses on cognitive factors.

What are biogenic, psychogenic and hedonic needs?

Biogenic needs are necessary to maintain life, psychogenic needs are culture-related needs and hedonic needs are subjective and experiential needs

What is the theory of cognitive dissonance?

A state of tension occurs when beliefs or behaviours conflict with one another

What is the difference between approach-approach, approach-avoidance, and avoidance- avoidance conflict?

Approach-approach conflict a person must choose between two desirable alternatives

Approach-avoidance conflict exists when we desire a goal but wish to avoid it at the same time

Avoidance-avoidance conflict appears when we are faced with a choice between two undesirable alternatives

What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation?

Intrinsic motivation is to be motivated b the enjoyment of an activity without a further end-goal whereas extrinsic motivation is to be motivated by external influences, or by a goal that is seperate from ourselves

What are four categories of extrinsic motivation?

External regulation, Introjection regulation, Identification, Integrated regulation

What are the four specific needs relevant to CB?

Need for affiliation: to be in the company of others

Need for achievement: to attain personal accomplishment

Need for power: to control one's environment

Need for uniqueness: to assert one's individual identity

What is the self-determination theory?

An approach used to define the needs people seek to satisfy. Focuses on needs that are essential for psychological health.

What is Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and five levels?

A hierarchy of biogenic and psychogenic needs that specifies certain levels of motives.

Physiological, Safety, Belongingness, Ego Needs, Self-Actualisation

What is the 3M Model of Motivation?

A model focused into four levels representing the influence of the individual and the context in which the individual is consuming

What are the four levels of the 3M model?

Elemental level

Compound level

Situation level

Surface level

What is involvement?

A person's perceived relevance of an object based on their inherent needs, values and interests

What is the difference between inertia and flow state?

Inertia consumers lack the motivation to consider alternatives whereas flow state consumers are truly involved with the product, ad or web site

What are cult products?

products that command fierce consumer loyalty, devotion and maybe even worship by consumers who are very highly involved with a brand.

What is product involvement?

Related to a consumer's level of interest in a particular product

How do you increase involvement?

Appeal to consumers' hedonic needs, use novel stimuli, unusual cinematography, include celebrity endorsers

What is a value?

A belief that some condition in preferable to its opposite

What are core values?

General set of values that uniquely define a culture

What is the difference between enculturation and acculturation?

Enculturation is the process of learning the value systems of one's own culture whereas acculturation is the process of learning the value system of another culture

What are some distinctions in values for CB research?

Cultural values, consumption-specific values, product-specific values

What is the Rokeach Value Survey comprised of?

Terminal values (desired end states) and instrumental values (actions needed to achieve terminal values)

What is the List of Values (LOV) scale?

Developed to isolate values with more direct marketing applications, identifies nine consumer segments based on the values they endorse.

What is the means-end chain model?

Assumes very specific product attributes are linked at levels of increasing abstaction to terminal values via laddering